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Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 1

3 Introduction to Radiology 2

4 1. Definition of Radiology  Radiology is a medical specialty using medical imaging technologies to diagnose and treat patients. 3

5 1. Definition of Radiology 4

6 2. What are our tools?  X-rays  CT  MRI  Ultrasound  Nuclear Medicine  Radiotherapy 5

7 Conventional Radiography “X-Ray” 6

8  Terms: Density Opacity  Observable Densities:  Bone  Soft Tissue  Gas Conventional Radiography “X-Ray” 7

9  X-rays  CT  MRI  Ultrasound  Nuclear Medicine  Radiotherapy 2. What our are tools? 8

10 Computed Tomography (CT) 9

11  Terms: Attenuation Density Enhancement  Large radiation dose Computed Tomography (CT) 10

12 2. What are our tools?  X-rays  CT  MRI  Ultrasound  Nuclear Medicine  Radiotherapy 11

13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 12

14  Terms: Signal intensity T1 T2 Enhancement  No radiation  Strong magnetic field No pacemakers No electronic implants  Small, loud tube  Patients must hold still  Relatively expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 13

15 2. What are our tools?  X-rays  CT  MRI  Ultrasound  Nuclear Medicine  Radiotherapy 14

16 Ultrasound 15

17  Terms: Echogenicity Shadowing Doppler for flow  No radiation  Can be portable  Relatively inexpensive Ultrasound 16

18 2. What are our tools?  X-rays  CT  MRI  Ultrasound  Nuclear Medicine  Radiotherapy 17

19 Nuclear Medicine (NM) [gamma camera] 18

20  Terms: Counts or Activity  Physiologic imaging  Radioactivity stays with the patient until cleared or decayed Nuclear Medicine (NM) [gamma camera] 19

21 Nuclear Medicine (NM) [SPECT] 20

22  Terms: Counts or Activity  Physiologic imaging  Radioactivity stays with the patient until cleared or decayed Nuclear Medicine (NM) [SPECT] 21

23 Nuclear Medicine (NM) [PET] 22

24  Terms: Counts or Activity  Physiologic imaging  Radioactivity stays with the patient until cleared or decayed Nuclear Medicine (NM) [PET] 23

25 2. What are our tools?  X-rays  CT  MRI  Ultrasound  Nuclear Medicine  Radiotherapy 24

26 Radiotherapy 25

27  Terms:  Deep X-ray therapy  Tumors  Masses, cancer  Cancer cells are very sensitive to radiation  Few side effects Radiotherapy 26

28 3. x-ray Physics  X-rays is a form of electromagnetic energy.  Travel at the speed of light.  X-ray is a part of electromagnetic spectrum. 27

29 Three Things Can Happen  X-rays can:  Pass all the way through the body.  Be deflected or scattered.  Be absorbed. 28

30 X-rays Passing Through Tissue  Depends on the energy of the x-ray and the atomic number of the tissue.  Higher energy x-ray - more likely to pass through.  Higher atomic number - more likely to absorb the x- ray. 29

31 How do x-rays passing through the body create an image?  X-rays that pass through the body to the film render the film dark (black).  X-rays that are totally blocked do not reach the film and render the film light (white).  Air = low atomic # = x-rays get through = image is dark.  Metal = high atomic # = x-rays blocked = image is light (white). 30

32 Basic Radiographic Densities  Air.  Bone.  Soft tissue. 31

33 How do X-rays create an image of internal body structures?  X-rays pass through the body to varying degrees.  Higher atomic number structures block x-rays better, example bone.  Lower atomic number structures allow x-rays to pass through, example: air in the lungs. 32

34 33

35 TO BE CONTINUED 34

36 Dr. Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 35

37 Introduction to Radiology 36

38 4. Medical Imaging  Primary purpose is to identify pathologic conditions.  Requires recognition of normal anatomy. 37

39 X-Ray Film  Film is a media that makes a permanent record of the image.  Image recorded on film is caused by exposure to photons. 38

40  Radiographic film is/was most common image receptor.  Films is consist of two parts: 1. Base. 2. Emulsion. X-Ray Film - Composition 39

41 X-Ray Film Cross Section 40

42 X-ray Film Construction - Base  Made of a polyester plastic.  Must be clear, strong, consistent thickness.  Tinted pale blue or blue-gray (reduces eye strain).  Coated on 1 or 2 sides with emulsion. 41

43  Film emulsion can be on one side or both sides of base (single emulsion / double emulsion).  Protective overcoat layered on top of emulsion.  Emulsion is a gelatin containing the film crystals.  Emulsion is the “active” layer of film. X-ray Film Construction - Emulsion 42

44 X-Ray Film Cross Section 43

45 Film Sizes SIZES  14 X 17 inch  14 X 14 inch  11 X 14 inch  10 X 12 inch  8 X 10 inch 44

46 Processing  The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image. 45

47 Processing  The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image. Manual Processing 46

48 Processing  The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image. Automatic Processing 47

49 Processing  The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image. Automatic Processing 48

50 Processing  The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image. Day Light System 49

51 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 5. Careers in Radiology and Radiologic Technology Radiologist Radiologic Technologist 50

52 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Objectives Summarize two primary roles of the radiologist. Define radiologic technologist and identify three primary roles. List the advanced practice roles of the radiologic technologist. 51

53 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologist Doctor who specializes in the use of radiant energy to diagnose and treat disease. Works in hospitals, the private sector, or diagnostic imaging or radiation therapy treatment centers. May specialize in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology. 52

54 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologist (cont.) Diagnostic Radiologist Job Responsibilities – Conduct general and specialized imaging examinations of the entire human body. Noninvasive imaging – studies taken from outside the body that do not require the use of contrast media. Invasive imaging – studies taken from inside the body that require needles or catheters to be inserted into the body. 53

55 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologist (cont.) Diagnostic Radiologist Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Maintain aseptic and sterile techniques and use standard precautions. – Use various imaging modalities. – Administer contrast agents. – Respond to emergencies and administer drugs. 54

56 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologist (cont.) Radiation Oncologist Job Responsibilities – To determine a tumor treatment plan for a client. – To cure, relieve pain and distress, enhance the action of drugs, or to establish local tumor control. 55

57 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologist (cont.) Radiation Oncologist Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Maintain aseptic and sterile techniques and standard precautions. – Use radiation to deliver treatments. – Identify the volume of the client’s body to be treated. 56

58 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologist (cont.) Radiation Oncologist Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Explain the treatment plan to the client and obtain informed consent. – Use positioning and immobilizing devices. – Assess the client’s tumor response after radiation therapy treatments. – Supervise the radiation oncology team. 57

59 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologic Technologist Uses radiant energy to produce diagnostic images or dispense treatments. 58

60 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Supervised by a radiologist. Certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists. Can become members of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists. 59

61 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Education and Employment – Fields include: Radiography. Nuclear medicine technology. Radiation therapy technology. – Advanced practice certification areas are also available with additional education. 60

62 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Employment Opportunities – Many work in hospital radiology departments. – Others may work in private physician offices, diagnostic-imaging centers, and emergency care clinics. – About two-thirds are employed as radiographers. 61

63 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Radiographer Job Responsibilities – May perform fluoroscopy. – Use contrast media to make viewing X-rays easier. 62

64 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Nuclear Medicine Technologist – Uses radioisotopes that tell how well the human anatomy functions. – Injects radioisotopes into the body. – Special cameras detect radioactivity, and the images are produced on the computer or on film. 63

65 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Radiation Therapist – Assists radiation oncologists by administering radiation doses. – Works with other staff members to ensure comprehensive treatment of cancer patients. 64

66 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Apply Your Knowledge Name at least four fields of radiology including advanced practice areas. Answer: 1.Nuclear medicine technology. 2.Radiation therapy technology. 3.Mammography. 4.Sonography. 5.Quality management technology. 65

67 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 66

68 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. TO BE CONTINUED 67


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