13 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Terms:Signal intensityT1T2EnhancementNo radiationStrong magnetic fieldNo pacemakersNo electronic implantsSmall, loud tubePatients must hold stillRelatively expensive
14 2. What are our tools? X-rays CT MRI Ultrasound Nuclear Medicine Radiotherapy
26 Radiotherapy Terms: Cancer cells are very sensitive to radiation Deep X-ray therapyTumorsMasses, cancerCancer cells are very sensitive to radiationFew side effects
27 3. x-ray Physics X-rays is a form of electromagnetic energy. Travel at the speed of light.X-ray is a part of electromagnetic spectrum.
28 Three Things Can Happen X-rays can:Pass all the way through the body.Be deflected or scattered.Be absorbed.
29 X-rays Passing Through Tissue Depends on the energy of the x-ray and the atomic number of the tissue.Higher energy x-ray - more likely to pass through.Higher atomic number - more likely to absorb the x- ray.
30 How do x-rays passing through the body create an image? X-rays that pass through the body to the film render the film dark (black).X-rays that are totally blocked do not reach the film and render the film light (white).Air = low atomic # = x-rays get through = image is dark.Metal = high atomic # = x-rays blocked = image is light (white).
32 How do X-rays create an image of internal body structures? X-rays pass through the body to varying degrees.Higher atomic number structures block x-rays better, example bone.Lower atomic number structures allow x-rays to pass through, example: air in the lungs.
41 X-ray Film Construction - Base Made of a polyester plastic.Must be clear, strong, consistent thickness.Tinted pale blue or blue-gray (reduces eye strain).Coated on 1 or 2 sides with emulsion.
42 X-ray Film Construction - Emulsion Film emulsion can be on one side or both sides of base (single emulsion / double emulsion).Protective overcoat layered on top of emulsion.Emulsion is a gelatin containing the film crystals.Emulsion is the “active” layer of film.
44 Film Sizes 14 X 17 inch 14 X 14 inch 11 X 14 inch 10 X 12 inch
45 ProcessingThe term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image.
46 Processing Manual Processing The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image.Manual Processing
47 Processing Automatic Processing The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image.Automatic Processing
48 Processing Automatic Processing The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image.Automatic Processing
49 Processing Day Light System The term applied to the chemical reactions that transform the latent image into a manifest image.Day Light System
50 5. Careers in Radiology and Radiologic Technology RadiologistRadiologic Technologist
51 Objectives Summarize two primary roles of the radiologist. Define radiologic technologist and identify three primary roles.List the advanced practice roles of the radiologic technologist.
52 RadiologistDoctor who specializes in the use of radiant energy to diagnose and treat disease.Works in hospitals, the private sector, or diagnostic imaging or radiation therapy treatment centers.May specialize in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology.
53 Radiologist (cont.) Diagnostic Radiologist Job Responsibilities Conduct general and specialized imaging examinations of the entire human body.Noninvasive imaging – studies taken from outside the body that do not require the use of contrast media.Invasive imaging – studies taken from inside the body that require needles or catheters to be inserted into the body.
54 Radiologist (cont.)Diagnostic Radiologist Job Responsibilities (cont.)Maintain aseptic and sterile techniques and use standard precautions.Use various imaging modalities.Administer contrast agents.Respond to emergencies and administer drugs.
55 Radiologist (cont.) Radiation Oncologist Job Responsibilities To determine a tumor treatment plan for a client.To cure, relieve pain and distress, enhance the action of drugs, or to establish local tumor control.
56 Radiologist (cont.) Radiation Oncologist Job Responsibilities (cont.) Maintain aseptic and sterile techniques and standard precautions.Use radiation to deliver treatments.Identify the volume of the client’s body to be treated.
57 Radiologist (cont.) Radiation Oncologist Job Responsibilities (cont.) Explain the treatment plan to the client and obtain informed consent.Use positioning and immobilizing devices.Assess the client’s tumor response after radiation therapy treatments.Supervise the radiation oncology team.
58 Radiologic Technologist Uses radiant energy to produce diagnostic images or dispense treatments.
59 Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Supervised by a radiologist.Certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists.Can become members of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
60 Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Education and EmploymentFields include:Radiography.Nuclear medicine technology.Radiation therapy technology.Advanced practice certification areas are also available with additional education.
61 Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Employment OpportunitiesMany work in hospital radiology departments.Others may work in private physician offices, diagnostic-imaging centers, and emergency care clinics.About two-thirds are employed as radiographers.
62 Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Radiographer Job ResponsibilitiesMay perform fluoroscopy.Use contrast media to make viewing X-rays easier.
63 Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Nuclear Medicine TechnologistUses radioisotopes that tell how well the human anatomy functions.Injects radioisotopes into the body.Special cameras detect radioactivity, and the images are produced on the computer or on film.
64 Radiologic Technologist (cont.) Radiation TherapistAssists radiation oncologists by administering radiation doses.Works with other staff members to ensure comprehensive treatment of cancer patients.
65 Apply Your KnowledgeName at least four fields of radiology including advanced practice areas.Answer:Nuclear medicine technology.Radiation therapy technology.Mammography.Sonography.Quality management technology.