Presentation on theme: "Patient Care In Medical Imaging RAD 233 Abdulrahman Al Sayyari, PhD, MBA, &MS.c."— Presentation transcript:
Patient Care In Medical Imaging RAD 233 Abdulrahman Al Sayyari, PhD, MBA, &MS.c
Professional Practice Lecture One & lecture two
Professional Practice of Imaging
Much of the work defining patient safety and practices that prevent harm have focused on negative outcomes of care, such as mortality and morbidity The services rendered by members of the health profession and non- professionals under their supervision for the benefit of the patient. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p269) Fundamentally, patient safety refers to freedom from accidental or preventable injuries produced by medical care. Thus, practices or interventions that improve patient safety are those that reduce the occurrence of preventable adverse events (AHRQ PSNet Patient Safety Network. Patient safety. [Accessed October 20, 2007]. Definition
Legal Responsibility Departmental policy and procedure DPP provide guidelines for technologist to provide patient with safe, comfortable, fast and efficient health service as well as protect technologist from any allegations. A tort is a an action that wrongly causes harm to someone but that is not a crime and that is dealt with in a civil court.
An unintentional tort is an act not intended to do harm but that still results in damage to person or property Negligence is an example of unintentional tort Negligence is the failure to take the care that a responsible person usually takes For a technologist to be found negligent, the following must be proven: – The patient was in the technologist’s care – The technologist failed in their duty to provide proper care – The patient suffered an injury – The patient's injury was a result of the technologist’s failure to provide proper care An unintentional Torts
An intentional tort is defined as an act performed with the intention of inflicting harm on another. Examples of intentional torts include: – assault – battery (a wrongful touching) – false imprisonment – intentional infliction of emotional distress Intentional Torts
Assault is the crime of trying or threatening to hurt someone physically – A statement such as "I'm going to get this x-ray one way or another,“ could be interpreted by the patient as assault Battery is the crime of hitting or touching someone without their consent and in a way that is meant to cause harm or injury – Battery may be claimed if a patient is palpated for positioning (i.e. palpating the symphysis pubis or chest) False imprisonment is the unlawful detention or confinement of a person – The inappropriate and unnecessary use of physical restraints is a common example of false imprisonment Intentional Torts cont’d
Quasi-intentional torts are voluntary acts, without intention to injure or distress a patient, but that still result in injury or damage Types of quasi-intentional torts are: –Defamation of character (statement that causes people to have a bad opinion of someone Slander (making a false spoken statement) Libel (publishing a false statement) – Invasion of privacy Quasi-intentional Torts
Legal Responsibility Summary of torts Type of tortDefinitionExample Unintentional tortAct not intended to do harm but that still results in damage to person or property Negligence Intentional tortAction performed with the intention of inflicting harm on another Assault, battery, false imprisonment. Quasi intentional tortAction that does not mean to hurt but still cause damage Defamation of character. Invasion of privacy.
Risk Management Risk management is the process of identification, analysis and acceptance or mitigation of service in medical imaging. Risk management aimed to provide patient with safe and efficient imaging service. Therefore it is crucial for technologists to be aware of risk situations specific to their profession.
Risk Situations Occupational hazards (e.g., accidental radiation exposure, high voltage, chemicals, back injury, repetitive stress injury) Demands or requests that a technologist engage in tasks or duties that fall outside of his or her job specifications and/or professional qualifications Inadequate information/documentation to perform the requested task Demands or requests that the technologist believes are inappropriate or “unreasonable”
Restraints Restraints are used to control or limit a person’s activity They can be either physical restraints or chemical restraints Reasonable judgement should be used to decide whether restraints are necessary If necessary, the least restrictive restraints that provide adequate safety should be used. Old fashion of risk management
Hospitals, and care facilities such as nursing homes, generally follow a policy of least restraint This means that all possible interventions must have been tried and been unsuccessful before deciding to use a restraint It is acceptable to use physical restraints for safety reasons with the patient’s permission Use of restraints will ensure the patient does not injure themselves or others, or disengage therapeutic lines or devices Restraints Policy
Restraints Physical Need physician order: Wrists, ankles, vest Does not need physician order: Side rail, wheelchair belt, compression band Chemical It always need physician order: Lorazepam
Mandatory Report Mandatory reporting means that as a health professional, you are required by law to file written reports if you are witness to “unsafe, incompetent or unethical practice” Issues may include: – Professional malpractice – Professional negligence – Incompetence – Incapacity – Sexual Harassment
Privacy and Confidentiality Privacy act: all patient’s information are considered private. Confidentiality: is to ensure private, personal information will be withheld from all, except those professionals directly involved in care. Privacy Act: is a law that regulate disclosing private information. 1.Consent. 2.Purpose for collection of personal information. 3.Any secondary user will be involved.
Privacy and Confidentiality in medical imaging Technologists must practice in a manner that protects patient privacy at all times This is an important aspect of working in health care as a medical radiation technologist Privacy can be applied by: – Keep request in private area – Imaging screen should be blank of any patient images and information if not in use – Discuss patient condition only with relevant health care provider – Patient medical file is under your custody, privilege people only could review it
Exceptions of Confidentiality Examples of conditions that may be exceptions to confidentiality include:
Consent Before a health care practitioner undertakes any sort of procedure or treatment on a patient, consent must be obtained from that patient Before the patient gives consent, it is important that the procedure is fully explained to them and their decision to undergo the procedure is an informed decision The only time a procedure may be performed without consent is in an emergency situation where consent cannot be obtained due to time constraints or patient condition
Types of Consents Consents Implied presentation at the emergency department or at the hospital for admission implies consent for ordinary diagnostic and treatment measures Expressed obtained when any medical procedure is to be undertaken on a patient Written authorization for use of drugs, sedation or contrast media Oral obtained in the presence of a witness when written consent is not available
Age and mental status: the patient must be old enough and mentally capable of making such a decision Voluntarily given: Be given voluntarily without coercion or threat Right for withdrawal : any time without any cost or punishment Considered for explained procedure: the patient must understand the nature and reason for the treatment, risks and benefit Be informed the patient must understand the consequences of not having the procedure or treatment, and must also have received information on alternatives Validity of the Consent
Who should obtain a consent? Ordering Physician ???!!! (has the responsibility to explain the procedure and alternatives) Radiologist Technologist (specially in a busy environment)
Consent in Emergency Situation The patient is too ill or too injured to provide a signed informed consent. No legal relative is available to provide consent on behalf the patient's Urgent treatment is crucial to prevent the danger to life or serious impairment. There is obvious risk of serious impairment. There is obvious danger to the patient's life
When a patient refuses treatment, the practitioner may be confused or frustrated The right to refuse treatment may seem irresponsible or irrational action from the patient But the practitioner must respect the patient’s decision It is important to keep in mind that the patient should never be forced or coerced into accepting treatment they are not comfortable with Refusal of Consent