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Presentation on theme: "BIO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION"— Presentation transcript:


2 Biomedical Engineering
Bio – “connected with life” Interdisciplines Bioengineering Bioinstrumentation Biometrics Biomedical engineer Clinical engineer 4/13/2017

3 Biomedical equipment technician Medical technologist Hospital engineer
Biophysicist 4/13/2017

4 Development of Biometrics
Measurement of physiological parameters BMI – Tools by which the measurement can be achieved 4/13/2017

5 Specifications Range’ Sensitivity Linearity Hysteresis
Frequency response Accuracy / Precision Signal to Noise ratio Stability 4/13/2017

6 Specifications..contd Isolation Simplicity 4/13/2017

7 Man-Instrument system
Black box Human organism + Instrumentation Instrumentation – Components that provide stimulus / Mechanism for automatic control of processess. Objectives – Information gathering, Diagnosis, Evaluation, Monitoring and Control. 4/13/2017

8 Components The subject Stimulus The transducer Signal conditioning
Display Recording, data-processing and transmission equipment Control devices 4/13/2017

9 Physiology Biochemical system - produces energy
- messenger agents for communication - materials for body repair and growth - for body functions Cardiovascular system Complex closed hydraulic system The Heart (Four chamber pump) Two synchronized and isolated pumps Artrium (First stage) collects blood - 4/13/2017

10 Physiology The ventricle (second stage) – receives the blood
Right side of the heart – collects fluid from the main hydraulic system (systemic circulation) and pumps through lungs. Left side of the heart – receives the fluid (pressure, volume, pattern of fluid flow, speed of the pump, efficiency The blood – communication and supply network Chemo receptors – Changes in the need for supplies Pco2 sensors – build up of waste materials Baroreceptors – out of tolerance pressures Valves – against the gravity 4/13/2017

11 Physiology The Respiratory system: - Pneumatic system
- Air pump (Diaphragm) alternately creates negative and positive pressures in a sealed chamber (thorascic cavity) lungs - Valving arrangement - Passage way divides and subdivides - Dual air input system (nasal cavities and mouth) – for special purposes - Oxygen is taken into the fluid and Co2 is taken out of the fluid to the air. - Automatic control center (respiratory center of the brain), Manual control – if necessary (Respiratory rate, Respiratory air flow, respiratory volume, concentration of Co2 in the expired air)) 4/13/2017

12 Physiology The Nervous system: - Communication network of the body.
- Self adapting central information processor. - The Brain - Millions of communication lines (afferent and efferent nerves) that bring sensory information-in, transmit control information-out of the brain. - Information is coded by electrochemical pulses (nerve action potentials) travel along nerves. - 4/13/2017

13 Problems Inaccessibility of variables to measurement Variability
Lack of knowledge Interaction among physiological systems Effect of transducer Artifacts Energy limitations Safety 4/13/2017

14 Bioelectric potentials
Resting and action potentials Propagation of action potentials Bioelectric potentials ECG-Electrocardiogram EEG-Electroencephalogram EMG-Electromyogram 4/13/2017


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