4/27/2015 Man-Instrument system Black box Human organism + Instrumentation Instrumentation – Components that provide stimulus / Mechanism for automatic control of processess. Objectives – Information gathering, Diagnosis, Evaluation, Monitoring and Control.
4/27/2015 Components The subject Stimulus The transducer Signal conditioning Display Recording, data-processing and transmission equipment Control devices
4/27/2015 Physiology Biochemical system - produces energy - messenger agents for communication - materials for body repair and growth - for body functions Cardiovascular system - Complex closed hydraulic system - The Heart (Four chamber pump) - Two synchronized and isolated pumps - Artrium (First stage) collects blood -
4/27/2015 Physiology - The ventricle (second stage) – receives the blood - Right side of the heart – collects fluid from the main hydraulic system (systemic circulation) and pumps through lungs. - Left side of the heart – receives the fluid - (pressure, volume, pattern of fluid flow, speed of the pump, efficiency - The blood – communication and supply network - Chemo receptors – Changes in the need for supplies - Pco2 sensors – build up of waste materials - Baroreceptors – out of tolerance pressures - Valves – against the gravity
4/27/2015 Physiology The Respiratory system: -Pneumatic system -Air pump (Diaphragm) alternately creates negative and positive pressures in a sealed chamber (thorascic cavity) lungs -Valving arrangement -Passage way divides and subdivides -Dual air input system (nasal cavities and mouth) – for special purposes -Oxygen is taken into the fluid and Co2 is taken out of the fluid to the air. -Automatic control center (respiratory center of the brain), Manual control – if necessary (Respiratory rate, Respiratory air flow, respiratory volume, concentration of Co2 in the expired air))
4/27/2015 Physiology The Nervous system: -Communication network of the body. -Self adapting central information processor. -The Brain -Millions of communication lines (afferent and efferent nerves) that bring sensory information-in, transmit control information-out of the brain. -Information is coded by electrochemical pulses (nerve action potentials) travel along nerves. -
4/27/2015 Problems Inaccessibility of variables to measurement Variability Lack of knowledge Interaction among physiological systems Effect of transducer Artifacts Energy limitations Safety
4/27/2015 Bioelectric potentials Resting and action potentials Propagation of action potentials Bioelectric potentials ECG-Electrocardiogram EEG-Electroencephalogram EMG-Electromyogram