Presentation on theme: "Invention and Innovation Unit #3 Mrs. Mattson Carl Ben Eielson Middle School ETP 2006—Tanya Mattson This material is based upon work supported by the National."— Presentation transcript:
Invention and Innovation Unit #3 Mrs. Mattson Carl Ben Eielson Middle School ETP 2006—Tanya Mattson This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0402616. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Science Foundation (NSF).
Unit #3 Technological Design Information for this presentation was taken from the CATTS curriculum Unit #3 and Valley City State University Unit #3 readings, unless otherwise noted.
Design A open-ended process There is no right answer There are many solutions
The attributes of Design 1.Is Purposeful 2.Has Requirements 3.Is Systematic 4.Is Iterative 5.Is Creative 6.Has Multiple Solutions
1. Purposeful The purpose of technological design is obvious, the designer is trying to solve a problem, meet a need, or develop a new product. The design process must have a process
2. Requirements Has 2 parts: What the solution must do; what are the specifications The limitations or constraints There can be an overlap between specifications and constraints The blanket category is called the requirements
3. Must be Systematic You must follow the design procedure If you don’t, many flaws may remain buried and unexamined until it is to late and a disaster occurs
4. Must be Iterative Means repetitive Closely tied to being systematic Example: Housing Industry – Manufactured Housing Auto Industry
5. Creativity Technology Education gives students endless opportunities to use their creativity Students can use their creativity to solve problems
Howard Gardner defines intelligence as, “The capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings.: (Gardner and Hatch, 1990)
3 Reasons that much design is done by interdisciplinary teams is: 1.Brainstorming is more effective in a group setting. 2.Different expertise can be called upon to solve different parts of the problem as they are identified. 3.Each discipline thinks with a certain pattern.
Technological Design is one of the purest expressions of “creativity.”
6. Multiple Solutions There are multiple solutions to any technological design activity You must consider multiple solutions
Technological Design The design must be repetitive There must be multiple solutions Very creative Usually a product of trial and error
Engineering Design A process used to design solutions to technological problems. A process of devising a component, system, or process to meet desired needs. (Engineering Design—http://civil.engr.siu.edu/intro/design.htm)
Basically, Engineering Design is… The process of inventing a device or improving an existing device to meet human needs and/or solve problems.
Essential Steps Found in the Design Process 1.Identify the problem 2.Define or “refine” the problem 3.Gather information Research—don’t reinvent the wheel 4.Develop alternate solutions The first idea is rarely the best 5.Select and refine the best solution The Design Proposal
6.Express the Design solution A sketch or drawing 7.Build a Model or Prototype of the solution May take many forms 8.Evaluate, revise, and refine the solution Not complete without this step 9.Communicate the solution
Troubleshooting Most often thought of as technical work, falling into the workload of the technician, rather than that of the designer, technologist, or engineer. The scientist discovers knowledge about nature, the engineer or technologist or designer apply this knowledge to create new products, and the technician builds, assembles and repairs (troubleshoots) the products.
Research and Development Refers to the need to refine one or more aspects of a design to ready it for production.
Experimentation Is a process often used in science and involves testing under controlled conditions
1. Medical Technology Technological advances in medicine have had a tremendous effect on our quality of life. Medical technology involves must more than just tools or hardware; it involves genetics, prosthetics, pharmaceuticals, procedures, software, and many other “hidden” or less obvious materials.
2. Agriculture and Bio Related Technology Technological development that negatively affects the environment and the food we consume can have devastating effects. The design process is supposed to consider all positive and negative consequences, but it is the unintended consequences that may cause problems in the future that cannot be changed.
3. Energy and Power Technology Although technology has made it possible to create power from wind, water and the sun, we are unable to meet the needs with just alternative forms of energy. Construction, Manufacturing and Communications also play an important role in developing new and better ways of conserving energy.
4. Information and Communication Technology The internet and wireless communication have made it possible to distribute information anywhere in the world and even into space. Our ability to access information from anywhere has made significant changes in the way we live and work. www.mobilewhack.com/reviews/lg_ld1200_cell_phone.html
Also has negative consequences Classified and Confidential information Computer viruses Software and hardware designers have to constantly fight against attacks from viruses and people trying to access secure information. www.dragon.cz/internet
5. Transportation Technology It is dependent on many other areas of technology to make it run more efficiently. Communication, Manufacturing and Construction technology produce many of the products and systems necessary for transportation. www.ci.san-leandro.ca.us/sllocation.html people.bu.edu/blinnlb
All of these areas working together create a transportation system. New designs are being created daily that never make it to production.
6. Manufacturing Technology New synthetic materials are being developed to replace some of the raw materials that were once required to create products. Ability to design products that we were previously unable to make. Some synthetic materials are more appealing because they are cheaper and easier to use than organic materials.
Computer controlled equipment and robotics have also had an impact on the manufacturing industry. Increase production and quality Robots are able to perform tasks that are dangerous to human workers Robots work more efficiently and at a consistent pace as compared to human workers. However, they are still susceptible to breakdown which requires human intervention to fix the problem.
Marketing of the product in the design process of manufacturing technology They rely on communication technology to inform the public about their product, selling the product and distribution Consumer goods have to be aesthetically pleasing. 2 products that are identical could have dramatically different sales because one is more appealing than the other.
7. Construction Technology Design in the construction world is mainly architects and engineers. They must analyze every aspect of structures to determine strengths, weaknesses and overall costs. In addition, climate, appearance, style, and building codes will determine the final design. Designers also have to consider whether the structure is temporary or permanent.
Standards Covered in this Unit 8– Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design 8.E—Design is a creative planning process that leads to useful products and systems. 8.F—There is no perfect design. 8.G—Requirements for a design are made up of criteria and constraints. 9—Students will develop an understanding of engineering design. 9.F—Design involves a set of steps, which can be performed in different sequences and repeated as needed.
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