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Health Careers Health Team Relations 2 nd & 4 th Blocks Instructor: Melissa Lewis.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Careers Health Team Relations 2 nd & 4 th Blocks Instructor: Melissa Lewis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Careers Health Team Relations 2 nd & 4 th Blocks Instructor: Melissa Lewis

2 Types of Education: 1. Secondary: High school courses 2. Health Occupations Education (HOE): Courses offered in high school. It prepares one for immediate employment in many HC or for additional education after graduation. 3. Post-secondary education: Courses taken after high school (career-technical school, community college, or university)

3 Types of Education cont: 4. Associate ’ s degree: Degree awarded by technical school or community college after 2 years of study. 5. Bachelor ’ s degree: Degree awarded by college/university after 4 or more years of study 6. Master ’ s degree: Degree awarded by college/university after 1 or more years of study beyond a bachelor ’ s degree. 7. Doctorate degree: Degree awarded by college/university after 2 or more years of study beyond a bachelor ’ s/master ’ s degree.

4 Certification, Registration, & Licensure: These methods ensure the skill and competency of HC personnel and to protect the consumer (patient). 1. Certification: Person has fulfilled requirements of education and performance and meets the standards and qualifications est. by the professional association or gov ’ t agency that regulates a particular career. Examples: Dental assistant, certified lab tech, certified medical assistant.

5 Certification, Registration, & Licensure cont: 2. Registration: Granted by regulatory body ( association or state board) that administers exams and maintains a current list of qualified personnel. Examples: Registered dietician, Registered respiratory therapist, & registered radiologic technologist

6 Certification, Registration, & Licensure cont: 3. Licensure: Gov ’ t agency authorizes someone to work in a given occupation. Usually this person has completed their studies, passed state board test, and maintains certain standards. Examples: Registered nurse, Physician, Dentist, LPN

7 Accreditation: One must graduate from an accredited program before they can get their certification, registration, or licensure This ensures that the program meets established standards Make sure that the school you want to attend is accredited before you enroll

8 Continuing Education Units (CEU’s): Required to renew licenses or maintain certification or registration in many states A person must obtain additional hours of education in specific HC career during a specific time period Ex. RN ’ s must obtain 24 to 48 CEU ’ s every one to two years to renew their licenses

9 Training: 1. Professional: Usually requires 4 or more years of college and an advanced degree (ex. Medical doctor, dentist) 2. Technologist or therapist: Requires 3-4 years of college plus work experience, usually a bachelor ’ s degree (ex. Physical therapist, speech therapist, medical lab technologist

10 Training: 3. Technician: Usually requires 2 year associate degree, special HOE, or 3-4 years OJT (ex. Dental lab tech, medical lab tech, surgical tech) 4. Assistant or aide: Usually requires up to one or more years of training that combines classroom and/or OJT experience (ex. Dental, medical, or nurse assistants

11 Multi-competent/Multi- skilled Worker: New trend in HC Workers perform in a variety of occupations Ex. Hiring an EKG tech that could also perform EEG ’ s This is cost-efficient

12 Entrepreneur: Individual who owns their own business Examples in the HC field would be Physician, Nurse practitioner, Chiropractor, Dentist, Optometrist, etc.

13 Health Care Careers There are over 200 health careers to choose from.

14 Dental Careers: 1. Dentists: They are doctors They examine teeth and mouth tissues Diagnose & treat disease Perform surgeries on teeth, gums, & tissues Work to prevent disease Supervise work of other dental workers Most are entrepreneurs

15 Dental Careers: 2. Dental Hygienists: Work under the supervision of a dentist Perform preliminary exams of teeth & mouth **Remove deposits & stains from teeth** Take x-rays

16 Dental Careers: 3. Dental laboratory technician (DLT ’ s) Make & repair dental prostheses (artificial devices) such as dentures, crowns, bridges, & orthodontic devices Work under dentist Some are entrepreneurs

17 Dental Careers: 4. Dental assistants (DA ’ s): Work under dentist Prepare patients for examination Pass instruments Sterilize instruments

18 Diagnostic Services: Basic job duties: Perform tests or evaluations They find out what the problem is Diagnose the problem

19 Skill: Height and Weight Greet and identify the patient State your name and title Explain procedure Wash hands Balance scale *** Raise height bar Patient to remove shoes and extra clothing

20 Skill: Height and Weight Move weights until scale is balanced Record weight in pounds Lower height bar until rests on patients head Record height in inches Help patient down from scale Return weights on scale to zero (left side) Wash hands Record in chart/growth chart

21 Electrocardiograph technician (EKG tech): Operate EKG machine which records the electrical activity of the heart Perform stress tests Apply Holter Monitors (EKG ’ s that last for 24-48 hours) Assist with thalium scans

22 Cardiovascular Technologists: Assist with cardiac catheterizations & angioplasty Monitor patients during heart surgery Perform tests to check circulation in blood vessels Echocardiographers use ultrasound to diagnose heart conditions

23 Electroencephalographic Technologists (EEG’s): Operate the EEG machine which records the electrical activity in the brain EEG ’ s diagnose brain tumors, strokes, epilepsy (seizures), sleep disorders

24 Medical/clinical Laboratory Technologist: Work under a pathologist (doctor) Determine presence or cause of disease by studying tissues, fluids, & cells of human body Perform tests Specialties include: biochemist, hematologist, histology, microbiology

25 Medical/Clinical Laboratory Technician: Work under pathologist or medical/clinical lab technologist Perform routine tests on tissues, fluids, & cells

26 Medical/clinical Laboratory Assistants: Work under medical technologist, technician, or pathologist Perform basic lab tests Prepare specimens for testing Clean & maintain equipment

27 Skill: Measuring & Recording Apical Pulse Wash hands Clean earpieces on stethoscope with alcohol swabs Put earpieces in ears Warm diaphragm with hands Locate apex of heart (under left breast and over light clothing Listen for heart sounds

28 Skill: Measuring & Recording Apical Pulse Count heart beats for one full minute. Note any abnormal sounds, rate, or rhythm Record number of beats on notepad Wash hands

29 Phlebotomist: **Draw blood** Collect blood and prepare it for testing

30 Radiologic Technologists (RT’s): Work under radiologist (doctor) Work with x-rays, radiation, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, MRI ’ s 1. Radiographers: take x-rays 2. Radiation therapists: administer radiation for cancer 3. Nuclear medicine technologists: Prepare radioactive substances to administer to patients (ex. Bone scans, thyroid scans, thalium scans)

31 Radiologic Technologists (RT’s) cont: 4. Ultrasound technologists or sonographer: Use equipment to send sound waves into body to record images (ex. Fetal u/s) 5. Computer tomography technologists: Use CT or CAT scanner to obtain cross- sectional images of body tissues, bones, and organs to help locate tumors

32 Radiologic Technologists (RT’s) cont: 6. Magnetic resonance (MRI) technologists: use magnets & radio waves to reveal info on organs inside body (used to identify MS & strokes) 7. Positron emission tomography (PET) technologist: They inject radioactive substances into patient and operate the PET scanner (it uses electrons to create 3-dimensional image of body parts)

33 Epidemiologists: Identify and track diseases as they occur in populations*** Determine risk factors that make a disease more likely to occur Develop methods to prevent or control spread of new diseases Evaluate statistics related to diseases

34 Biomedical Engineers: Work with different machines used to diagnose, treat, and monitor patients Develop artificial organs, heart valves, hip replacements Design computer systems Design and produce monitors, machines, instruments, lasers, medical equipment

35 Biological/Medical Scientists: Study living organisms such viruses, bacteria, etc Assist in the development of vaccines, medicines, treatments

36 Emergency Medical Services: 1. Basic job duties: Provide emergency, pre-hospital care Provide care to victims of accidents, injuries, and sudden illnesses Places of employment: fire/police departments, rescue squads, ambulance services, etc.

37 First Responder: First person to arrive at the scene of injury or illness Interview and examine the victim Calls for emergency medical assistance prn (as needed) Maintains safety & infection control at scene Provides basic emergency medical care (ex. Airway management, bleeding control, CPR)

38 Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT): Level one - EMT basic EMT defibrillator Level two - EMT intermediate Level three – EMT paramedic (most advanced)

39 EMT Basic: Provide basic care Keep scene safe & practice infection control Administer initial treatment for medical emergencies (shock, burns, wounds, bleeding, etc) Clear airway obstructions & administer oxygen Provide basic life support Assist with emergency births Rescue trapped people Transport victims to medical facilities

40 EMT-Intermediate: They can do everything an EMT-B can do Assess patients Interpret EKG ’ s Administer defibrillation prn Manage shock Use IV equipment Administer certain medications Insert esophageal airways

41 EMT-Paramedics: Can perform all duties of EMT-B and EMT-I Conduct in-depth patient assessment Provide advanced cardiac life support Perform advanced airway management (endotrachial intubation) Administer more advanced medications Operate more complex equipment

42 Skill: Bleeding Practice standard precautions (wear gloves) Apply direct pressure to wound with thick dressing or sterile gauze Elevate wound above level of heart Apply extra dressings over initial gauze Use roller bandage to hold in place Tie off ends of bandage by placing ties directly over dressings Make sure dressing not too tight by checking distal pulse or capillary refill

43 Health Information & Communication Services: Job duties: Maintain complete accurate patient records, distribute health information, & use computers

44 Health Information (medical records) Administrators: Operate & use variety of computer programs Ensure confidentiality of patient records Manage medical records department Compile statistics Plan systems for storing & obtaining information from records

45 Medical Transcriptionist: Use a computer to enter data dictated on an audiotape recorder by physicians or other HC personnel

46 Unit Secretary: Record information on patient charts Schedule procedures Order supplies Answer telephones Operate computers

47 Medical Illustrator: Use artistic and creative talents to produce illustrations, charts, graphs, & diagrams for health textbooks, journals, magazines, etc. Related field - Medical photographer: Takes photos or videos procedures, conditions, accidents, etc.

48 Medical Librarian: Organize books, journals, to provide health information to other HC providers

49 Hospital/HC Facility Services: Duties: These workers operate support departments of HC facilities Includes: Administration, business office, admitting office, central/sterile supply, & housekeeping

50 HC Administrators: Plan, direct, coordinate & supervise the delivery of HC Hire personnel Supervise department heads Determine budget & finance Perform PR duties Manage operation of the facility

51 Admitting Clerks/Officers: Work in admissions department Obtain necessary info when patient is admitted to facility Assign rooms Maintain records Process information when patient is discharged

52 Central/Sterile Supply Workers: Order, maintain, and supply all the equipment and supplies Sterilize instruments and/or equipment Inventory materials Maintain equipment Fill requisitions from other departments

53 Housekeeping/Environment al Service Workers: Maintain cleanliness of HC facility Provide pleasant, clean environment Observe principles of infection control to prevent the spread of disease in the HC facility

54 Medical Careers: These workers diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases and disorders of the human body Includes physicians (doctors) and those who work under the supervision of physicians

55 Physician: Examine patients Obtain medical histories Order tests and prescribe medications Make diagnoses (what is wrong?) Perform surgery Treat diseases/disorders Teach preventative HC

56 Classifications of Physicians: MD - Doctor of Medicine: Diagnose, treat, and prevent disease** DO – Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine: Place emphasis on nervous, muscular, & skeletal systems DPM – Doctor of Podiatric Medicine: Examines, diagnoses, & treats diseases of feet/legs below the knee DC – Doctor of Chiropractic: Concentrates on structure of spine and nervous system

57 Physician Specialties: Anesthesiologist Cardiologist Dermatologist Gastroenterologist Gerontologist Gynecologist Neurologist Radiologist Urologist Obstetrician Oncologist Ophthalmologist Orthopedist Otolaryngologist Pathologist Pediatrician Psychiatrist Thoracic surgeon

58 Physician Assistants (PA): Work under the supervision of the physician Take medical histories Perform routine physical exams Order basic tests Make preliminary diagnoses Treat minor injuries Prescribe and administer treatments & medications

59 Medical Assistants (MA): Work under physicians Prepare patients for exams Take vital signs Record medical histories Assist with treatments/procedures Prepare & maintain equipment Perform secretarial duties

60 Mental & Social Services: Mental services deal with mental/emotional disorders or mental retardation Social workers help people will illness, employment, or community problems Both of these workers try to help individuals function to their maximum capacity

61 Psychiatrists: Physicians who specialize in diagnosing and treating mental illness

62 Psychologists: Study human behavior Use knowledge to help individuals deal with problems of everyday living Counsel individuals and families

63 Social Workers: Aid people who have difficulty coping with various problems Help individuals make adjustments to changes in their lives Refer individuals to community resources for assistance Provide emotional support for individuals/families Evaluate charges of abuse

64 Mortuary Careers: Job duties include: Performing ceremonies that honor the deceased and meets the spiritual needs of the living Cremation or burial of remains

65 Funeral Directors or Morticians: Provide support to survivors Make funeral arrangements Prepare the body for burial File death certificates

66 Embalmers: Prepare the body Wash the body Replace the blood with embalming fluid Reshape disfigured bodies Apply cosmetics Position body in casket Most funeral directors/morticians are licensed embalmers

67 Skill: Writing an Obituary Includes: Full legal name Date of birth, date of death, & age at death City/town of residence Do not include exact address Relative listing Survived by spouse, parents, sons, daughters, grandchildren, great grandchildren, sisters, brothers

68 Skill: Writing an Obituary Work history Place and time of funeral Place of burial How to make memorial contributions A recent photograph Optional info: special interests, associations, military service, special achievements, special pets

69 Nursing Careers: ***Job duties include: Provide total care for patients under the direction of a physician*** Direct care at mental, emotional, and physical needs of a patient

70 Nursing Careers cont: 1. Registered Nurse (RN) Master ’ s or Doctorate degree Bachelor ’ s degree Diploma program Associate ’ s degree 2. Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) 3. Nurse assistant (CNA)

71 Certified Nursing Assistant Work under Registered Nurse Take vital signs Give baths Make beds

72 Skill: Hand washing Wash hands with warm water Keep fingertips pointing down Wash hands for a minimum of 15 seconds Turn off faucet with dry paper towel Do not touch the sink or cabinet while washing Use friction while washing hands Hand washing is the #1 thing that you can do to prevent the spread of infection

73 Skill: Hand washing cont … Push sleeves up and wash 4-5 inches up arm No splashing Rub hands in a circular motion Make sure to wash between fingers and under nails

74 Surgical Technician Work in the operating room passing instruments to the surgeon Must maintain a sterile environment Must know all of the names of the instruments and how they look Minimal schooling Good stepping stone for other careers

75 Nutrition/Dietary Services They promote wellness and optimum health by providing dietary guidelines used to treat various diseases, teaching proper nutrition, and preparing foods for HC facilities.

76 D ietician Bachelor ’ s degree*** Manage food service departments Assess patient ’ s nutritional needs Make recommendations

77 Dietetic Assistant Work under dieticians Assist with food preparation Help patients select menus items

78 Skill: Feeding a Patient Allow hot foods to cool Use straw for liquids Use tip of half-filled spoon Tell patient what they are eating Provide time to chew Alternate solids and liquids Wipe mouth prn Encourage patient to eat as much as possible Remove gloves and wash hands

79 Skill: Feeding a Patient Wash hands Apply standard precautions Position towel/napkin/bib under chin Prepare food by opening cartons, removing covers, cutting meat, buttering bread ***Assist if needed, while encouraging patient to do as much as possible***

80 Therapeutic Services Occupational therapist (Bachelors/Masters) Help people deal with physical, developmental, mental, or emotional disabilities Occupational assistant (1-2 years) Pharmacist (Masters 5-6 years) Pharmacy Technician (OJT) Physical therapist (Bachelors/Masters) Provide treatment to improve movement Physical therapy assistant (2 years)

81 Therapeutic Services cont … Massage therapist (3m-1yr) Use massage to relieve pain Recreational therapist (Bachelors) Plan leisure activities to minimize symptoms and increase general well-being Respiratory therapist (Associates/Bachelors) Treat patients with heart and lung diseases Speech-language therapist/pathologist (Masters) Treat patients with speech disorders Athletic trainer (Bachelors/Masters) Prevent and treat athletic injuries Perfusionist***(Bachelors) Run the heart-lung machine in the operating room

82 Skill: Body Mechanics HC professionals needs to use correct body mechanics to prevent injury to themselves (ex. back strains)*** Maintain broad base of support Feet 6-8 inches apart One foot slightly forward Points toes in direction of movement

83 Skill: Body Mechanics Pick up heavy object Keep object close to body Bends from hips and knees Carries object close to body Changes direction Places heavy object Pushes heavy object with weight of body Always keep back straight

84 Veterinary Careers Focus on providing care for all types of animals

85 Veterinarian (DVM) Doctor Works to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases and injuries to animals Perform surgeries on animals

86 Veterinarian Technician Work under veterinarian Assist with handling animals Collect specimens Take x-rays Perform lab tests Assist with surgery

87 Veterinarian Assistant Feed, bathe, and groom animals Exercise animals Clean cages

88 Vision Services Provide care to prevent and treat vision disorders

89 Ophthalmologist (MD) Medical doctors Specialize in diseases of eye Diagnose and treat disease Perform surgery

90 Optometrist Examine eyes for vision problems Prescribe corrective lenses

91 Ophthalmic Technician Work under ophthalmologist Prepare patient for examination Take medical histories

92 Optician Make and fit eyeglasses or lenses prescribed by ophthalmologists and optometrists***

93 Skill: Vision Screening Snellen Chart should be 20 feet from patient Patient should remove glasses/contacts Patient should cover one eye with an occluder (index card) Both eyes should be kept open during exam Patient should identify letters verbally Record the smallest line patient able to read comfortably OD = Right eye OU = Both eyes OS = Left eye

94 THE END!!!

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