Presentation on theme: "Azlan Abdul Aziz, Universiti Putra Malaysia"— Presentation transcript:
1 EXPERIENCES IN OUTCOME BASED ENGINEERING EDUCATION & ACCREDITATION IN MALAYSIA Azlan Abdul Aziz, Universiti Putra Malaysia& Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor, Malaysia Japan Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi MalaysiaPEC 1-Day Workshop, 23 February 2014Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), Karachi
2 International Agreements / Networks EDUCATIONPRACTICEWASHINGTONACCORDENGINEERS MOBILITY FORUMSYDNEYACCORDAPEC ENGINEERENGINEERING TECHNOLOGISTS MOBILITY FORUMDUBLINACCORDFEANI / EUR-ACE / ENAEE(EUROPE)INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING ALLIANCE (IEA) /formerly INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING MEETING (IEM)NABEEA(ASIA)UPADI(CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA)
3 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS In Malaysia, 08/10/2012INTRODUCTORY REMARKSIn Malaysia,Purpose of accreditation – graduates of accredited degree are able to register with the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM)Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC), a body delegated by BEM to conduct accreditation of engineering programmes. EAC has representatives from BEM, IEM, Malaysian Quality Authority (MQA) and Public Services Dept. (PSD)
4 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Focus of EAC Ensuring the expected engineering education level is maintained (breadth and depth)Outcome-based engineering education (OBE) programme is practisedContinual Quality improvement (CQI) on Programmes appliedQuality Management System practised
5 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Accreditation History 08/10/2012INTRODUCTORY REMARKSAccreditation HistoryWA license due for renewal Expected visit by WA Reviewers as observers on accreditation exercise to Institutions of Higher Learning in late 2014/early 2015Expectation: Sufficient if IHL have OBE plans and infancy implementation: Implement OBE in a systems approach. Full WA signatory 2009: Efficacy/ Efficiency/ Effectiveness of OBE systems2020 OBE at IHL is de rigueur
6 ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Schedule a visit after application from IHL. 6 months before final exams of first graduating cohort. Accreditation Cycle: 5 yearsProvide Self Assessment Report (SAR) in accordance to criteria and as specified in manual.Accreditation Visit (2 days incl. nightly meetings), not limiting to:Meeting with prog. admin., staff, students, alumni and employers; visit facilities and check documents.
7 ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE VISIT DAYVisit include(1) Opening Meeting: led by EAC evaluators & followed by IHL ‘short’ presentation(2) Evaluation: Evidence-based through interviews, checking documents and records, and observation (‘triangulation’)(3) Closing/Exit Meeting for clarification or correction of factual inaccuracies. No arguments nor solutions are requested.
8 ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Professionalism during Visit DayShort and concise briefing from both evaluators and IHL (Note: SAR is self-explanatory and comprehensive). IHL should concentrate on what is NEW and focus on NICHE of programmesOrganisedPunctual – keep to provided and prepared scheduleCourteousNot argumentativeWell dressedNot over friendly. Be formal
9 ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Professionalism during Visit Day (Ctd…)Working lunch/teas in evaluation room among panel evaluators onlyDo not provide tokens/gifts to evaluatorsProvide name tags, signage, computer and printing facilitiesEnsure right persons/ guides available at the appointed timeEAC SchedulesAccreditation Decision Meeting in April, August and December every year. Submission deadline of SAR and planned visit by January 31 every year.
10 Accreditation Criteria and Qualifying Requirements 3Ps (Players, Process, Paper)PDCAPEO&POStaffFacilitiesQMSCurriculumStudentsAccreditation Criteria and Qualifying Requirements
12 Programme Objectives (PEO) and Programme Outcomes (PO) PEOs are specific goals consistent with the vision & mission of IHLPublished statements of PEOClear linkages between PEO and POInvolvement of constituents/ stakeholdersExpected to be achieved/analysed a few years after graduation (usually for about 5 years of employment)POs are statements that describe what students are expected to know and be able to perform or attain by the time of graduation
13 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW based on IEA WA (2012) (i) ability to acquire and apply knowledge of science and engineeringfundamentals;(i) Engineering Knowledge - Apply knowledge of mathematics, science,engineering fundamentals and an engineering specialisation to the solution of complex engineering problems;(ii) acquire in‐depth technical competence in a specific engineeringdiscipline;(iii) ability to undertake problem identification, formulation and solution;(ii) Problem Analysis - Identify, formulate, research literature and analyse complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences;
14 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (v) understanding of the principles of design for sustainable development;(iii) Design/Development of Solutions - Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design systems, components or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate consideration for public health and safety, cultural, societal, and environmental considerations;
15 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (iv) ability to utilise systems approach to design and evaluate operational performance;(iv) Investigation - Conduct investigation into complex problems using research based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of information to providevalid conclusions;
16 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (v) Modern Tool Usage - Create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modelling, to complex engineering activities, with an understanding of thelimitations;
17 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (vi) understanding of professional and ethical responsibilities andcommitment to them;(vi)The Engineer and Society - Apply reasoning informed by contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to professional engineering practice;(ix) understanding of the social, cultural, global and environmentalresponsibilities of a professional engineer; and(vii) Environment and Sustainability - Understand the impact of professionalengineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts and demonstrateknowledge of and need for sustainable development;
18 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (vi) understanding of professional and ethical responsibilities andcommitment to them;(viii) Ethics - Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics andresponsibilities and norms of engineering practice;(vii) ability to communicate effectively, not only with engineers but also with the community at large;(ix)Communication - Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, makeeffective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions;
19 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (viii) ability to function effectively as an individual and in a group with the capacity to be a leader or manager ;(x)Individual and Team Work – Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams and in multi-disciplinary settings;(x) recognising the need to undertake life‐long learning, andpossessing/acquiring the capacity to do so.(xi) Life-long Learning - Recognise the need for, and have the preparation andability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest contextof technological change.
20 Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (xii)Project Management and Finance - Demonstrate knowledge andunderstanding of engineering and management principles and apply these toone’s own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and inmultidisciplinary environments;
21 Depth of Knowledge Required Complex Problems (Engineer)Broadly Defined Problems (Technologist)Well defined Problems (Technician)Requires in-depth knowledge that allows a fundamentals-based first principles analytical approachRequires knowledge of principles and applied procedures or methodologiesCan be solved using limited theoretical knowledge, but normally requires extensive practical knowledge
22 Definition of Complex Problem Solving (IEA WA) The range of complex problem solving as required by the Programme Outcomes in Section 4.0 is defined as follows:AttributesComplex Problems1.PreambleEngineering problems which cannot beresolved without in-depth engineeringknowledge, much of which is at, orinformed by, the forefront of theprofessional discipline, and have some or allof the following characteristics listed below:2.Range of conflicting requirementsInvolve wide-ranging or conflictingtechnical, engineering and other issues.3.Depth of analysis requiredHave no obvious solution and requireabstract thinking, originality in analysis toformulate suitable models.
23 Definition of Complex Problem Solving AttributesComplex Problems4.Depth of knowledge requiredRequires research-based knowledge muchof which is at, or informed by, the forefrontof the professional discipline and whichallows a fundamentals-based, firstprinciples analytical approach.5.Familiarity of issuesInvolve infrequently encountered issues6.Extent of applicable codesAre outside problems encompassed bystandards and codes of practice forprofessional engineering.7.Extent of stakeholderinvolvement and level ofconflicting requirementsInvolve diverse groups of stakeholders withwidely varying needs.
24 Definition of Complex Problem Solving AttributesComplex Problems8.ConsequencesHave significant consequences in a range ofcontexts.9.InterdependenceAre high level problems including manycomponent parts or sub-problems.
25 Definition of Complex Engineering Activities The range of complex engineering activities is defined as follows:AttributesComplex Activities1.PreambleComplex activities means (engineering)activities or projects that have some or allof the following characteristics listed below:2.Range of resourcesInvolve the use of diverse resources (andfor this purpose, resources include people,money, equipment, materials, informationand technologies).3.Level of interactionRequire resolution of significant problemsarising from interactions between wide ranging or conflicting technical, engineeringor other issues.
26 Definition of Complex Engineering Activities AttributesComplex Activities4.InnovationInvolve creative use of engineeringprinciples and research-based knowledge innovel ways5.Consequences to society andthe environmentHave significant consequences in a range ofcontexts, characterised by difficulty ofprediction and mitigation.6.FamiliarityCan extend beyond previous experiences byapplying principles-based approaches.
27 Knowledge Profile (Curriculum) The curriculum shall encompass the knowledge profile as summarised in the table below:Knowledge ProfileA systematic, theory-based understanding of the natural sciences applicable tothe discipline (e.g. calculus-based physics)Conceptually-based mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and formalaspects of computer and information science to support analysis and modellingapplicable to the disciplineA systematic, theory-based formulation of engineering fundamentals required in the engineering disciplineEngineering specialist knowledge that provides theoretical frameworks andbodies of knowledge for the accepted practice areas in the engineeringdiscipline; much is at the forefront of the disciplineKnowledge that supports engineering design in a practice area
28 Knowledge Profile (Curriculum) Knowledge of engineering practice (technology) in the practice areas in theengineering disciplineComprehension of the role of engineering in society and identified issues inengineering practice in the discipline: ethics and the professional responsibility of an engineer to public safety; the impacts of engineering activity: economic,social, cultural, environmental and sustainabilityEngagement with selected knowledge in the research literature of the discipline
29 Outcome Based Education OBE is a process that involves assessment and evaluation practices in education to reflect the attainment of expected learning outcomes and showing mastery in the programme areaOBE in a NutshellWhat do you want the students to have or able to do?How can you best help students achieve it?How will you know what they have achieved?How do you close the loop
30 Strategy of OBE Top down curricula design Appropriate Teaching & Learning MethodsAppropriate Assessment & Evaluation Methods
31 Characteristics of OBE curricula It has programme objectives, programme outcomes, course learning outcomes and performance indicators. It is centered around the needs of the students and the stakeholders.It is objective and outcome driven, where stated objective and outcomes can be assessed and evaluated.Suitable tools and methods are used to measure and evaluate attainment of the outcomesResults from evaluation are used for CQI
32 Stakeholders Interest InstitutionalMission StatementStakeholders InterestProgramme ObjectivesProgramme Outcomes(Knowledge, skills, attitudes of graduates)Outcome-Related Course Learning Objectives(Ability to: explain, calculate, derive, design)Assessment of Attainment LevelContinual Improvement
37 Learning Style Model Perception Sensing Intuitive Input Modality Visual VerbalProcessing Active ReflectiveUnderstanding Sequential Global
38 Visual (Vs) LearnersVerbal (Vb) Learners“Show me”“Explain it to me”- pictures- spoken words- diagrams- written words, symbols (seen, but translated by brain into their Oral equivalents)- sketches- schematics- flow charts- plots
39 Active (A) LearnersReflective (R) LearnersTend to process actively (doing something physical with presented material, then reflecting on it)Tend to process reflectively (thinking about presented material, then doing something with it)Think out loudWork introspectively“let’s try it out and see how it goes”“Let’s think it through and then try it”Tend to jump in prematurelyTend to delay startingLike group workLike solo or pair work
40 Sequential (Sq) Learners Global (G) Learners Built understanding in logical sequential stepsAbsorb information randomly, then synthesize the big pictureFunction with partial understanding of informationNeed the big pictures (interrelations, connections to other subjects and personal experience) in order to function with informationMake steady progressLarge leaps in understanding with little progress between themExplain easilyCan’t explain easilyGood at analytical thinking (the trees)Synthesis, holistic thinking (the forest)
43 ASSESSMENT:Processes that identify, collect, use and prepare data for evaluation of achievement of programme outcomes or educational objectives.EVALUATION:Processes for interpretation of data and evidence from assessment practices that determine the program outcomes are achieved or result in actions to improve programme.
44 Course Coverage & Assessment When assessing, an instructor must consciously assess and evaluate the applicable elements (Knowledge, Skills, Attitude). An activity may be used to examine all the three elementsModel AModel BCompetenciesCompetenciesKnowledgeKnowledgeSkillsSkillsAttitudeAttitude
45 Course Outcomes (CO) Contribution to Programme Outcomes (PO) Life Long LearningTeach students about learning styles and help them identify the strength and weakness of their styles and give them strategies to improveUse active learning methods to accustom them to relying on themselvesGive assignments that requires library and www searchesAnything done to fulfil criteria on: (a) understanding ethical and professional responsibility and (b) understanding societal and global context of engineering solutions, will automatically satisfy this criteria
46 Assessment/Evaluation tools Exit surveys, Exit interviews (P)Alumni surveys and interviews (P)Employer surveys and interviews (P)Job offers, starting salaries (relative to national benchmark) (P)Admission to graduate schools (P)Performance in group and internship assignments and in PBL situation (P,C)Assignments, report and tests in capstone design course (P,C)Standardized tests (P,C)P: Program C: Course
47 Assessment tools (cont) Student surveys, individual and focus group interviews (P,C)Peer-evaluations, self evaluations (P,C)Student portfolios (P,C)Behavioral observation (P,C)Written tests linked to learning objectives (C)Written project reports (C)Oral presentation, live or videotape (C)Research proposals, student-formulated problems (C)Classrooms assessment Techniques (C)
48 CONCLUDING REMARKSSince the introduction of OBE & OBA, many initiatives have been undertaken by M’sian IHL and other institutions:Training by EAC/ MySET/ IEM on OBETraining by Higher Education Leadership Academy, AKEPT on active learning delivery methods: Problem Based Learning (PBL), Project Oriented PBL, Case Study Method, etcSoftware development to ‘close the loop’