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How to Become A Good Speaker

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Presentation on theme: "How to Become A Good Speaker"— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Become A Good Speaker
2017年4月13日7时18分 How to Become A Good Speaker Kai-Fu Lee Corporate Vice President Microsoft Corporation

2 Why Be a Good Speaker? Not just “presentation”, but also “persuasion”
“The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.” Pericles Not just “presentation”, but also “persuasion” Get people’s “mindshare” Influence a friend, colleague, or boss Tell people what you did, and why it matters

3 What You’ll Learn Today:
Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

4 First Topic: Learn Speaking Skills
Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

5 Speaking Skills Are Important
2017年4月13日7时18分 Speaking Skills Are Important “Without effective delivery, a speech of the highest mental capacity can be held in no esteem. With effective delivery, even one with moderate abilities may surpass those of the highest talent.” Cicero

6 What Are Speaking Skills?
2017年4月13日7时18分 What Are Speaking Skills? 7% 38% 55% Verbal (words spoken) Vocal (tone, range, appeal, credibility of voice) Visual (physical appearance, gestures, eye contact) Delivery Skills Can be learned

7 Most Important: Enthusiasm
2017年4月13日7时18分 Most Important: Enthusiasm “There is just one sure cure for bad speeches – Get truly excited on the subject, and 99 percent of the faults of your speaking will disappear.” Robert Montgomery Don’t accept a talk without enthusiasm Could be from interest, experience, environment Example: Martin Luther King I have a dream… that one day this nation will rise up; live out the true meaning to its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal. Not how loud, but how sincere If you’re passionate, your vocal & visual skills will come naturally. Passion could come from subject, experience, or environment.

8 Verbal Skills – Be Simple & Clear
2017年4月13日7时18分 Verbal Skills – Be Simple & Clear Be simple and clear! Don’t ramble Stop to think if you need to Example one: Dan Quayle celebrates democracy Example two: Dan Quayle trying to say “A mind is a terrible thing to waste”

9 Verbal Skills – Use simple words
2017年4月13日7时18分 Verbal Skills – Use simple words Speaking is not like writing!!! Use simple words Don’t use complex sentences Can you understand this: Text: The development of this frightful means of destruction was ardently demanded by the perils of the time and situation. Simultaneously, however, a new paradoxical situation has been…. is upon us continually. One cannot defend oneself effectively any more. -- Albert Einstein

10 Vocal Skills : Play your voice
2017年4月13日7时18分 Vocal Skills : Play your voice Project & resonate your voice No “UM”s and “ER”s. (Pause instead) Tools: silence, loudness, intonation, speed “You are right. I am wrong.” – Stalin to Trotsky “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” John F. Kennedy “I welcome this kind of examination, because people have to know whether their president is a crook. Well, I’m not a crook.” Richard M. Nixon Don’t overdo it!!!

11 Vocal+Verbal : Words+Intonation
2017年4月13日7时18分 Vocal+Verbal : Words+Intonation John Kennedy: “You need to contribute to your country” “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country”. Quayle vs. Benson Debate: Quayle: "I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency." Answer 1: “Jack Kennedy is better than you.” Answer 2: "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy.“

12 Visual Skills US Election 1960 was won on visual skills
2017年4月13日7时18分 Visual Skills US Election 1960 was won on visual skills Components of Visual Skills: Eyes Body Hands Face

13 Visual Skills – Eyes Look forward at audience (trust)
2017年4月13日7时18分 Visual Skills – Eyes Look forward at audience (trust) Don’t shift eyeballs; don’t look in corner Don’t look too much at computer screen or notes Look at people’s faces (not eyes) 3-6 seconds per person Shift randomly Nod, smile, use facial expression

14 Visual Skills – Body Stand up when talking Walk around = informal
2017年4月13日7时18分 Visual Skills – Body Stand up when talking Walk around = informal Don’t: Rock, shake Lean too much

15 Visual Skills – Hands Gesture complements talk
2017年4月13日7时18分 Visual Skills – Hands Gesture complements talk Should come naturally, without thinking Make sure they match! Need to exaggerate a little Especially with large audience Don’t fidget or put in pocket Videotape whole talk & watch Can improve hand gesturing!

16 Visual Skills – Face Show emotion! Most of the time:
2017年4月13日7时18分 Visual Skills – Face Show emotion! Most of the time: “I care a lot about this.” “I really believe in this.” “I love my work.” Sometimes (in response to questions). “This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.” “I will have nothing to do with this.”

17 Next Topic: Develop the talk
Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

18 The Key Point: the Goal of the Talk
The ONE clear walk-away message. The answer to the question: “How was the talk?” The one thing people remember in 3 months The Origin Point (Where the audience was) Persuasion The Key Point (Where you took them)

19 Must Have Audience Benefit
2017年4月13日7时18分 Must Have Audience Benefit Put audience needs at heart “What’s in it for you?” Has to be their reason, not yours Must consider feeling, not just reaction Must have right “you” Good phrases to know: “This is important to you because…” “Why am I telling you this? Because…” “What does this mean for you? Let me tell you…” Know your audience Experience, knowledge, attitude

20 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story
Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

21 Tell them what you’re going to say
2017年4月13日7时18分 Organizing the Story You’re the salesman First lesson for salesmen: Tell them what you’re going to say Opening Body Say it Ending Tell them what you said

22 The Opening The opening Customize the opening Lead to the Key Point
2017年4月13日7时18分 The Opening You never get a second chance to make a first impression Jerry Weissman The opening A question Factoid Anecdote Quotation Analogy Joke (make it relevant!) Customize the opening Lead to the Key Point Give a (very short) outline/overview

23 The Body Ready to write the slides? DON’T!!!
2017年4月13日7时18分 The Body Ready to write the slides? DON’T!!! Brainstorming into data dump Connect the ideas into “main themes” Connect the teams using one logic flow

24 & Main Themes Data Dump Key point “How was the talk?
2017年4月13日7时18分 & Main Themes Data Dump Key point “How was the talk? Remember in 3 months What’s in it for you? Right you Audience benefit Audience feeling Good phrases to use 3-step salesman Opening Joke Relevant Quote Analogy Data dump brainstorming Connect to main themes Clusters Research background Transitions Repeat KP Issue / Action Problem / Solution Feature Benefit Chronological Flow Form / Function Opportunity / Leverage Everything a good idea main themes Ending

25 The Flow Possible flows: Convincing logic & order Smooth transitions
2017年4月13日7时18分 The Flow Possible flows: Convincing logic & order Smooth transitions Keep repeating the Key Point! Compare / Contrast Problem / Solution Feature / Benefit Spatial Numerical Chronological (See “Presenting to Win” by Jerry Weissman for more examples)

26 The Ending End with a BANG! Repeat the Key Point Say thank you
2017年4月13日7时18分 The Ending End with a BANG! “Tonight, we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be served.” George W. Bush Repeat the Key Point “If you remember only one thing from this talk, then you should remember XXX” Say thank you

27 Review of Organizing Your Story
2017年4月13日7时18分 Review of Organizing Your Story Opening  Key Point Tell them what you’re going to say Body (Repeat Key Point) Say it Data Dump  Main Themes Flow Main Themes Theme 1 Issue  Action Theme 2 Closing  Key Point Tell them what you said

28 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story
Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

29 Design Graphics PowerPoint only supports your talk Design principles
2017年4月13日7时18分 Design Graphics PowerPoint only supports your talk Spend more time on organization & delivery! Design principles Keep it simple Apply psychology Make it easy to follow Make it attractive Your titles should tell your story

30 2017年4月13日7时18分 Why “Keep It Simple”? Aim to develop a consistent style, using the standard stylesheet whenever possible. One concept per slide. The font that is being used should be very large 24 point or larger. I will now use smaller fonts to prove to you that it is a major strain to your eyes to read small fonts. The color of the font and the background should be in sharp contrast. If one is light, then the other should be dark. Otherwise it will be very hard to read. The use of bullets should be simple. Too many bullets distracts the user from listening to you. 3 big sub-ideas (or bullets) is the most you should have. The entire slide should have fewer than 8 bullets and sub-bullets. I will add a few more bullets to show this is not a good idea And one more Keep the language used simple, so that the user doesn’t have to “think” to understand your point. Each bullet should fit in one line, because the idea of a bullet is to convey idea, headline, and server as a reminder (or cue) for you to describe and amplify. Parallel wording means the bullets are roughly parallel, and contain similar grammatical constructs. This can save the user a lot of time trying to “understand” what you said.

31 Keep It Simple Consistent look One concept per slide Readable
2017年4月13日7时18分 Keep It Simple Consistent look One concept per slide Readable >20 point Avoid abbreviation Use shadow outline fonts Contrast font & background Don’t leave too much blank space

32 Keep It Simple : Bullets
2017年4月13日7时18分 Keep It Simple : Bullets Headline, not sentence Reminder for you Concise <4 top-level bullets <10 total bullets & sub-bullets Simple language One line per bullet Parallel wording

33 What’s wrong with this? A good speech Clear point
2017年4月13日7时18分 What’s wrong with this? A good speech Clear point Understands what audience wants Organization based on logic Powerful opening Ending that people remember

34 Instead, do this…. A good speech Clear point
2017年4月13日7时18分 Instead, do this…. A good speech Clear point Appealing audience benefit Logical flow Powerful opening Strong close

35 Apply Psychology to Design
2017年4月13日7时18分 Apply Psychology to Design Don’t fight natural eye movements Move left to right Return to upper left corner Sweep to lower right corner Subliminal hints Graphics to match your key point Anticipation Requirement Fast speed Low cost Easy to use Our Solution

36 Apply Psychology to Design
2017年4月13日7时18分 Apply Psychology to Design Don’t fight natural eye movements Move left to right Return to upper left corner Sweep to lower right corner Subliminal hints Graphics to match your key point Anticipation Avoid bad signs

37 2017年4月13日7时18分 What’s Wrong With This? Great financial results -- Revenue reached $1,000, Growth passed 20% -- Profit exceeded $200,000

38 Instead, do this Great financial results Revenue reached $1,000,000
2017年4月13日7时18分 Instead, do this Great financial results Revenue reached $1,000,000 Growth passed 20% Profit exceeded $200,000

39 2017年4月13日7时18分 What’s Wrong With This? Revenue

40 2017年4月13日7时18分 Instead, do this Revenue

41 Make it Easy to Follow Use outline Use builds General goal:
2017年4月13日7时18分 Make it Easy to Follow Use outline Highlight upcoming section Use builds Remind where you are General goal: Don’t make the audience think (Other than what you’re saying)

42 Make It Attractive 20 hours on preparation 10 hours on practice
2017年4月13日7时18分 Make It Attractive 20 hours on preparation 10 hours on practice Why not spend 1 hour on attractive design?

43 Instead of doing this… Cost Satisfaction Productivity Revenue
2017年4月13日7时18分 Instead of doing this… Cost Satisfaction Productivity Revenue

44 Why not do this… Productivity Cost Satisfaction Revenue
2017年4月13日7时18分 Why not do this… Cost Productivity Satisfaction Revenue

45 Instead of doing this… Bill Gates Steve Ballmer Steve Jobs
2017年4月13日7时18分 Instead of doing this… Bill Gates Brilliant Technologist Steve Ballmer Powerful Salesman Steve Jobs Passionate Evangelist Lou Gerstner Logical Businessman

46 Why not do this… Brilliant technologist Bill Gates Powerful salesman
2017年4月13日7时18分 Why not do this… Bill Gates Steve Ballmer Steve Jobs Lou Gerstner Brilliant technologist Powerful salesman Passionate evangelist Logical Businessman

47 Your Titles Should Tell the Story
Body & hands Eyes Visual skills Play your voice Enthusiasm Vocal skills: Simple & Clear Verbal skills What are speaking skills? Speaking skills are important Learn speaking skills What you’ll learn today Why be a good speaker? Use simple words Words + intonation Apply psychology to design Keep it simple PowerPoint only supports talk Design graphics The ending The flow Data dump & main themes The body Organizing the story Must have audience benefit Key point = Goal of the talk Develop Key Point Face The opening Review of organizing story Show emotion! Most of the time: “I care a lot about this.” “I really believe in this.” “I love my work.” Sometimes (in response to questions). “This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.” “I will have nothing to do with this.” Conclusion Giving a good answer Opportunity to amplify Be yourself Audience participation Humor Overcoming nervousness Confidence & passion Delivery Rehearsing your delivery Practice your talk Make it attractive Make it easy to follow Overcoming language barrier Q&A Use outline Highlight upcoming section Use builds Remind where you are General goal: Don’t make the audience think (Other than what you’re saying) “The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.” Pericles Not just “presentation”, but “persuasion” Influence a friend, colleague, or boss. Tell people what you did, and why it matters. Get people’s “mindshare”.

48 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story
Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

49 Rehearsing Your Content
Prepare, prepare, prepare Customize the talk Within-talk references Repeat key point Repeat main themes Repeat your company (university) name Practice to use same word(s) per concept Practice transitions between slides

50 Rehearsing Your Delivery
2017年4月13日7时18分 Rehearsing Your Delivery Record & listen to every talk at least twice! Best : PowerPoint features OK : Tape recorder Get the timing right Running out of time is a disaster Practice to an audience or record video Ask experienced speaker to critique Record video for critique

51 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story
Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

52 Delivering the Talk Confidence & passion Overcoming language barrier
2017年4月13日7时18分 Delivering the Talk Confidence & passion Overcoming language barrier Overcoming nervousness Humor Audience participation Be yourself

53 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired:
2017年4月13日7时18分 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired: Get enough sleep the previous night Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee! No milk Stand on left side of screen

54

55 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired:
2017年4月13日7时18分 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired: Get enough sleep the previous night Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee! No milk Stand on left side of screen During your talk, do not apologize “Sorry I’m behind on time” “Sorry this slide is so hard to read”

56 Overcoming Language Barrier
2017年4月13日7时18分 Overcoming Language Barrier Know your limitations Don’t use fancy words, complex sentences Don’t take any chance of looking silly Prepare an outline/script Rehearse before the talk Don’t have to use it Not OK to read your bullets But OK to read or memorize your speech Practice still required Proper vocal & visual skills still required

57 Overcoming Nervousness
2017年4月13日7时18分 Overcoming Nervousness “Do the thing you fear and the death of fear is certain.” -- Ralph Waldo Emerson It is possible to hide nervousness! Don’t let the shaking show! Make a fist; hold the lectern Speak loudly Take a deep breath Don’t have to look at audience’s eyes Look at a friendly face Look above people’s heads

58 Humor Good humor: How to tell a joke? Plan your humor: Relevant
2017年4月13日7时18分 Humor Good humor: Relevant Respectful Short How to tell a joke? Prepare audience Pause after “punch line” Move on naturally if no reaction! Plan your humor: Remember what worked Use it again!

59 Audience Participation
2017年4月13日7时18分 Audience Participation “I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand.” Ask audience a question Anticipate their answer(s)! Respond with something interesting AND relevant Also OK to ask before talk & include in talk

60 Be Yourself Don’t copy others’ styles Comfort zone Ideal role
2017年4月13日7时18分 Be Yourself Don’t copy others’ styles Many styles could be effective You must be yourself to be credible Adapt your style, but stay within “comfort zone” Bill Gates Steve Ballmer Steve Jobs Ideal role Brilliant technologist Powerful salesman Passionate evangelist Comfort zone Great strategist Trustworthy CEO Technology visionary

61 Last Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story
Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

62 Q&A: Opportunity to Amplify
2017年4月13日7时18分 Q&A: Opportunity to Amplify Q&A is your last chance to: Amplify your points (particularly the Key Point) Increase your credibility If people are too shy, you start! Hard questions No need to answer directly But don’t hide! Narrow questions Take offline

63 Q&A – Giving A Good Answer
2017年4月13日7时18分 Q&A – Giving A Good Answer Respect the listener Don’t argue or dismiss a question Right body language Answer to the entire audience Repeat the question Complete if people cannot hear Paraphrase to help amplify your point

64 Conclusion Anyone can become a good speaker; It just takes :
2017年4月13日7时18分 Conclusion Anyone can become a good speaker; It just takes : a little skill, and a lot of practice!

65 Use of Demos / Multimedia
2017年4月13日7时18分 Use of Demos / Multimedia Keeps the talk interesting Don’t overdo it Should be tied to content Ordering : 2,N, N-1, N-2,….3, 1


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