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How to Become A Good Speaker Kai-Fu Lee Corporate Vice President Microsoft Corporation.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Become A Good Speaker Kai-Fu Lee Corporate Vice President Microsoft Corporation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 How to Become A Good Speaker Kai-Fu Lee Corporate Vice President Microsoft Corporation

3 Why Be a Good Speaker? “The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.” Pericles Not just “presentation”, but also “persuasion” Get people’s “mindshare” Influence a friend, colleague, or boss Tell people what you did, and why it matters

4 Learn Speaking Skills What You’ll Learn Today: Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

5 Learn Speaking Skills First Topic: Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

6 “Without effective delivery, a speech of the highest mental capacity can be held in no esteem. With effective delivery, even one with moderate abilities may surpass those of the highest talent.” Cicero Speaking Skills Are Important

7 What Are Speaking Skills? Verbal (words spoken) Vocal (tone, range, appeal, credibility of voice) Visual (physical appearance, gestures, eye contact) 7%38%55% Delivery Skills Can be learned

8 Most Important: Enthusiasm “There is just one sure cure for bad speeches – Get truly excited on the subject, and 99 percent of the faults of your speaking will disappear.” Robert Montgomery Don’t accept a talk without enthusiasm Could be from interest, experience, environment Example: Martin Luther King I have a dream… that one day this nation will rise up; live out the true meaning to its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal. Not how loud, but how sincere

9 Verbal Skills – Be Simple & Clear Be simple and clear! Don’t ramble Stop to think if you need to Example one: Dan Quayle celebrates democracy Example two: Dan Quayle trying to say “A mind is a terrible thing to waste”

10 Verbal Skills – Use simple words Speaking is not like writing!!! Use simple words Don’t use complex sentences Can you understand this: Text: The development of this frightful means of destruction was ardently demanded by the perils of the time and situation. Simultaneously, however, a new paradoxical situation has been…. is upon us continually. One cannot defend oneself effectively any more. -- Albert Einstein

11 Vocal Skills : Play your voice Project & resonate your voice No “UM”s and “ER”s. (Pause instead) Tools: silence, loudness, intonation, speed “You are right. I am wrong.” – Stalin to Trotsky “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” -- John F. Kennedy “I welcome this kind of examination, because people have to know whether their president is a crook. Well, I’m not a crook.” -- Richard M. Nixon Don’t overdo it!!!

12 Vocal+Verbal : Words+Intonation John Kennedy: “You need to contribute to your country” “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country”. Quayle vs. Benson Debate: Quayle: "I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency." Answer 1: “Jack Kennedy is better than you.” Answer 2: "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy.“

13 Visual Skills US Election 1960 was won on visual skills Components of Visual Skills: EyesBodyHandsFace

14 Visual Skills – Eyes Look forward at audience (trust) Don’t shift eyeballs; don’t look in corner Don’t look too much at computer screen or notes Look at people’s faces (not eyes) 3-6 seconds per person Shift randomly Nod, smile, use facial expression

15 Visual Skills – Body Stand up when talking Walk around = informal Don’t: Rock, shake Lean too much

16 Visual Skills – Hands Gesture complements talk Should come naturally, without thinking Make sure they match! Need to exaggerate a little Especially with large audience Don’t fidget or put in pocket Videotape whole talk & watch Can improve hand gesturing!

17 Visual Skills – Face Show emotion! Most of the time: “I care a lot about this.” “I really believe in this.” “I love my work.” Sometimes (in response to questions). “This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.” “I will have nothing to do with this.”

18 Learn Speaking Skills Next Topic: Develop the talk Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

19 The Key Point: the Goal of the Talk The ONE clear walk-away message. The answer to the question: “How was the talk?” The one thing people remember in 3 months The Origin Point (Where the audience was) The Key Point (Where you took them) Persuasion

20 Must Have Audience Benefit Put audience needs at heart “What’s in it for you?” Has to be their reason, not yours Must consider feeling, not just reaction Must have right “you” Good phrases to know: “This is important to you because…” “Why am I telling you this? Because…” “What does this mean for you? Let me tell you…” Know your audience Experience, knowledge, attitude

21 Learn Speaking Skills Next Topic: Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

22 Organizing the Story You’re the salesman First lesson for salesmen: Tell them what you’re going to say Say it Tell them what you said Opening Body Ending

23 The Opening You never get a second chance to make a first impression Jerry Weissman The opening A question Factoid Anecdote Quotation Analogy Joke (make it relevant!) Customize the opening Lead to the Key Point Give a (very short) outline/overview

24 The Body Brainstorming into data dump Connect the ideas into “main themes” Connect the teams using one logic flow Ready to write the slides? DON’T!!!

25 Data Dump Key point “How was the talk? Remember in 3 months What’s in it for you? Right you Audience benefit Audience feeling Good phrases to use 3-step salesman Opening Joke Relevant Quote Analogy Data dump brainstorming Connect to main themes Clusters Research background Transitions Repeat KP Issue / Action Problem / Solution Feature Benefit Chronological Flow Form / Function Opportunity / Leverage Everything a good idea main themes Ending & Main Themes

26 The Flow Possible flows: Convincing logic & order Smooth transitions Keep repeating the Key Point! Spatial Numerical Chronological Compare / Contrast Problem / Solution Feature / Benefit (See “Presenting to Win” by Jerry Weissman for more examples)

27 The Ending End with a BANG! “Tonight, we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be served.” George W. Bush Repeat the Key Point “If you remember only one thing from this talk, then you should remember XXX” Say thank you

28 Review of Organizing Your Story Opening  Key Point Closing  Key Point Flow Main Themes Theme 1 Issue  Action Theme 2 Issue  Action Data Dump  Main Themes Body (Repeat Key Point) Tell them what you’re going to say Say it Tell them what you said

29 Learn Speaking Skills Next Topic: Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

30 Design Graphics PowerPoint only supports your talk Spend more time on organization & delivery! Design principles Keep it simple Apply psychology Make it easy to follow Make it attractive Your titles should tell your story

31 Why “Keep It Simple”? Aim to develop a consistent style, using the standard stylesheet whenever possible. One concept per slide. The font that is being used should be very large 24 point or larger. I will now use smaller fonts to prove to you that it is a major strain to your eyes to read small fonts. The color of the font and the background should be in sharp contrast. If one is light, then the other should be dark. Otherwise it will be very hard to read. The use of bullets should be simple. Too many bullets distracts the user from listening to you. 3 big sub-ideas (or bullets) is the most you should have. The entire slide should have fewer than 8 bullets and sub-bullets. I will add a few more bullets to show this is not a good idea And one more Keep the language used simple, so that the user doesn’t have to “think” to understand your point. Each bullet should fit in one line, because the idea of a bullet is to convey idea, headline, and server as a reminder (or cue) for you to describe and amplify. Parallel wording means the bullets are roughly parallel, and contain similar grammatical constructs. This can save the user a lot of time trying to “understand” what you said.

32 Keep It Simple Consistent look One concept per slide Readable >20 point Avoid abbreviation Use shadow outline fonts Contrast font & background Don’t leave too much blank space

33 Keep It Simple : Bullets Headline, not sentence Reminder for you Concise <4 top-level bullets <10 total bullets & sub-bullets Simple language One line per bullet Parallel wording

34 What’s wrong with this? A good speech Clear point Understands what audience wants Organization based on logic Powerful opening Ending that people remember

35 Instead, do this…. A good speech Clear point Appealing audience benefit Logical flow Powerful opening Strong close

36 Apply Psychology to Design Don’t fight natural eye movements Move left to right Return to upper left corner Sweep to lower right corner Subliminal hints Graphics to match your key point Anticipation Requirement Fast speed Low cost Easy to use Our Solution

37 Apply Psychology to Design Don’t fight natural eye movements Move left to right Return to upper left corner Sweep to lower right corner Subliminal hints Graphics to match your key point Anticipation Avoid bad signs

38 What’s Wrong With This? Great financial results -- Revenue reached $1,000, Growth passed 20% -- Profit exceeded $200,000

39 Instead, do this Great financial results Revenue reached $1,000,000 Growth passed 20% Profit exceeded $200,000

40 What’s Wrong With This? Revenue

41 Instead, do this Revenue

42 Make it Easy to Follow Use outline Highlight upcoming section Use builds Remind where you are General goal: Don’t make the audience think (Other than what you’re saying)

43 Make It Attractive 20 hours on preparation 10 hours on practice Why not spend 1 hour on attractive design?

44 Instead of doing this… CostSatisfactionProductivityRevenue

45 Why not do this…

46 Instead of doing this… Bill Gates Brilliant Technologist Steve Ballmer Powerful Salesman Steve Jobs Passionate Evangelist Lou Gerstner Logical Businessman

47 Why not do this… Bill Gates Steve Ballmer Steve Jobs Lou Gerstner Brilliant technologist Powerful salesman Passionate evangelist Logical Businessman

48 Your Titles Should Tell the Story Body & hands Eyes Visual skills Play your voice Enthusiasm Vocal skills: Simple & Clear Verbal skills What are speaking skills? Speaking skills are important Learn speaking skills What you’ll learn today Why be a good speaker? Use simple words Words + intonation “The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.” Pericles Not just “presentation”, but “persuasion” Influence a friend, colleague, or boss. Tell people what you did, and why it matters. Get people’s “mindshare”. Apply psychology to design Keep it simple PowerPoint only supports talk Design graphics The ending The flow Data dump & main themes The body Organizing the story Must have audience benefit Key point = Goal of the talk Develop Key Point Face The opening Review of organizing story Show emotion! Most of the time: “I care a lot about this.” “I really believe in this.” “I love my work.” Sometimes (in response to questions). “This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.” “I will have nothing to do with this.” Conclusion Giving a good answer Opportunity to amplify Be yourself Audience participation Humor Overcoming nervousness Confidence & passion Delivery Rehearsing your delivery Practice your talk Make it attractive Make it easy to follow Overcoming language barrier Q&A Use outline Highlight upcoming section Use builds Remind where you are General goal: Don’t make the audience think (Other than what you’re saying)

49 Learn Speaking Skills Next Topic: Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

50 Rehearsing Your Content Prepare, prepare, prepare Customize the talk Within-talk references Repeat key point Repeat main themes Repeat your company (university) name Practice to use same word(s) per concept Practice transitions between slides

51 Rehearsing Your Delivery Record & listen to every talk at least twice! Best : PowerPoint features OK : Tape recorder Get the timing right Running out of time is a disaster Practice to an audience or record video Ask experienced speaker to critique Record video for critique

52 Learn Speaking Skills Next Topic: Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

53 Delivering the Talk Confidence & passion Overcoming language barrier Overcoming nervousness Humor Audience participation Be yourself

54 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired: Get enough sleep the previous night Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee! No milk Stand on left side of screen

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56 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired: Get enough sleep the previous night Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee! No milk Stand on left side of screen During your talk, do not apologize “Sorry I’m behind on time” “Sorry this slide is so hard to read”

57 Overcoming Language Barrier Know your limitations Don’t use fancy words, complex sentences Don’t take any chance of looking silly Prepare an outline/script Rehearse before the talk Don’t have to use it Not OK to read your bullets But OK to read or memorize your speech Practice still required Proper vocal & visual skills still required

58 Overcoming Nervousness “Do the thing you fear and the death of fear is certain.” -- Ralph Waldo Emerson It is possible to hide nervousness! Don’t let the shaking show! Make a fist; hold the lectern Speak loudly Take a deep breath Don’t have to look at audience’s eyes Look at a friendly face Look above people’s heads

59 Humor Good humor: RelevantRespectfulShort How to tell a joke? Prepare audience Pause after “punch line” Move on naturally if no reaction! Plan your humor: Remember what worked Use it again!

60 Audience Participation Ask audience a question Anticipate their answer(s)! Respond with something interesting AND relevant Also OK to ask before talk & include in talk “I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand.”

61 Be Yourself Don’t copy others’ styles Many styles could be effective You must be yourself to be credible Adapt your style, but stay within “comfort zone” Comfort zone Great strategist Trustworthy CEO Technology visionary Bill Gates Steve Ballmer Steve Jobs Ideal role Brilliant technologist Powerful salesman Passionate evangelist

62 Learn Speaking Skills Last Topic: Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery

63 Q&A: Opportunity to Amplify Q&A is your last chance to: Amplify your points (particularly the Key Point) Increase your credibility If people are too shy, you start! Hard questions No need to answer directly But don’t hide! Narrow questions Take offline

64 Q&A – Giving A Good Answer Respect the listener Don’t argue or dismiss a question Right body language Answer to the entire audience Repeat the question Complete if people cannot hear Paraphrase to help amplify your point

65 Conclusion Anyone can become a good speaker; It just takes : a little skill, and a lot of practice!

66 Use of Demos / Multimedia Keeps the talk interesting Don’t overdo it Should be tied to content Ordering : 2,N, N-1, N-2,….3, 1


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