Presentation on theme: "How to Become A Good Speaker"— Presentation transcript:
1 How to Become A Good Speaker 2017年4月13日7时18分How to Become A Good SpeakerKai-Fu LeeCorporate Vice PresidentMicrosoft Corporation
2 Why Be a Good Speaker? Not just “presentation”, but also “persuasion” “The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.”PericlesNot just “presentation”, but also “persuasion”Get people’s “mindshare”Influence a friend, colleague, or bossTell people what you did, and why it matters
5 Speaking Skills Are Important 2017年4月13日7时18分Speaking Skills Are Important“Without effective delivery,a speech of the highest mental capacitycan be held in no esteem. With effective delivery,even one with moderate abilities maysurpass those of the highest talent.”Cicero
6 What Are Speaking Skills? 2017年4月13日7时18分What Are Speaking Skills?7%38%55%Verbal (words spoken)Vocal (tone, range, appeal, credibility of voice)Visual (physical appearance, gestures, eye contact)Delivery SkillsCan be learned
7 Most Important: Enthusiasm 2017年4月13日7时18分Most Important: Enthusiasm“There is just one sure cure for bad speeches – Get truly excited on the subject, and 99 percent of the faults of your speaking will disappear.” Robert MontgomeryDon’t accept a talk without enthusiasmCould be from interest, experience, environmentExample: Martin Luther KingI have a dream… that one day this nation will rise up; live out the true meaning to its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.Not how loud, but how sincereIf you’re passionate, your vocal & visual skills will come naturally.Passion could come from subject, experience, or environment.
8 Verbal Skills – Be Simple & Clear 2017年4月13日7时18分Verbal Skills – Be Simple & ClearBe simple and clear!Don’t rambleStop to think if you need toExample one: Dan Quayle celebrates democracyExample two: Dan Quayle trying to say “A mind is a terrible thing to waste”
9 Verbal Skills – Use simple words 2017年4月13日7时18分Verbal Skills – Use simple wordsSpeaking is not like writing!!!Use simple wordsDon’t use complex sentencesCan you understand this:Text:The development of this frightful means of destruction was ardently demanded by the perils of the time and situation. Simultaneously, however, a new paradoxical situation has been…. is upon us continually. One cannot defend oneself effectively any more.-- Albert Einstein
10 Vocal Skills : Play your voice 2017年4月13日7时18分Vocal Skills : Play your voiceProject & resonate your voiceNo “UM”s and “ER”s. (Pause instead)Tools: silence, loudness, intonation, speed“You are right. I am wrong.” – Stalin to Trotsky“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” John F. Kennedy“I welcome this kind of examination, because people have to know whether their president is a crook. Well, I’m not a crook.” Richard M. NixonDon’t overdo it!!!
11 Vocal+Verbal : Words+Intonation 2017年4月13日7时18分Vocal+Verbal : Words+IntonationJohn Kennedy:“You need to contribute to your country”“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country”.Quayle vs. Benson Debate:Quayle: "I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency."Answer 1: “Jack Kennedy is better than you.”Answer 2: "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy.“
12 Visual Skills US Election 1960 was won on visual skills 2017年4月13日7时18分Visual SkillsUS Election 1960 was won on visual skillsComponents of Visual Skills:EyesBodyHandsFace
13 Visual Skills – Eyes Look forward at audience (trust) 2017年4月13日7时18分Visual Skills – EyesLook forward at audience (trust)Don’t shift eyeballs; don’t look in cornerDon’t look too much at computer screen or notesLook at people’s faces (not eyes)3-6 seconds per personShift randomlyNod, smile, use facial expression
14 Visual Skills – Body Stand up when talking Walk around = informal 2017年4月13日7时18分Visual Skills – BodyStand up when talkingWalk around = informalDon’t:Rock, shakeLean too much
15 Visual Skills – Hands Gesture complements talk 2017年4月13日7时18分Visual Skills – HandsGesture complements talkShould come naturally, without thinkingMake sure they match!Need to exaggerate a littleEspecially with large audienceDon’t fidget or put in pocketVideotape whole talk & watchCan improve hand gesturing!
16 Visual Skills – Face Show emotion! Most of the time: 2017年4月13日7时18分Visual Skills – FaceShow emotion!Most of the time:“I care a lot about this.”“I really believe in this.”“I love my work.”Sometimes (in response to questions).“This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.”“I will have nothing to do with this.”
17 Next Topic: Develop the talk Learn Speaking SkillsDevelop Key PointOrganize StoryDesign GraphicsPractice TalkQ&ADelivery
18 The Key Point: the Goal of the Talk The ONE clear walk-away message.The answer to the question: “How was the talk?”The one thing people remember in 3 monthsThe Origin Point(Where the audience was)PersuasionThe Key Point(Where you took them)
19 Must Have Audience Benefit 2017年4月13日7时18分Must Have Audience BenefitPut audience needs at heart“What’s in it for you?”Has to be their reason, not yoursMust consider feeling, not just reactionMust have right “you”Good phrases to know:“This is important to you because…”“Why am I telling you this? Because…”“What does this mean for you? Let me tell you…”Know your audienceExperience, knowledge, attitude
20 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Learn Speaking SkillsDevelop Key PointOrganize StoryDesign GraphicsPractice TalkQ&ADelivery
21 Tell them what you’re going to say 2017年4月13日7时18分Organizing the StoryYou’re the salesmanFirst lesson for salesmen:Tell them what you’re going to sayOpeningBodySay itEndingTell them what you said
22 The Opening The opening Customize the opening Lead to the Key Point 2017年4月13日7时18分The OpeningYou never get a second chance to make a first impression Jerry WeissmanThe openingA questionFactoidAnecdoteQuotationAnalogyJoke (make it relevant!)Customize the openingLead to the Key PointGive a (very short) outline/overview
23 The Body Ready to write the slides? DON’T!!! 2017年4月13日7时18分The BodyReady to write the slides?DON’T!!!Brainstorming into data dumpConnect the ideas into “main themes”Connect the teams using one logic flow
24 & Main Themes Data Dump Key point “How was the talk? 2017年4月13日7时18分& Main ThemesData DumpKey point“How was the talk?Remember in 3 monthsWhat’s in it for you?Right youAudience benefitAudience feelingGood phrases to use3-step salesmanOpeningJokeRelevantQuoteAnalogyData dumpbrainstormingConnect to main themesClustersResearch backgroundTransitionsRepeat KPIssue / ActionProblem / SolutionFeature BenefitChronologicalFlowForm / FunctionOpportunity / LeverageEverything a good ideamain themesEnding
25 The Flow Possible flows: Convincing logic & order Smooth transitions 2017年4月13日7时18分The FlowPossible flows:Convincing logic & orderSmooth transitionsKeep repeating the Key Point!Compare / ContrastProblem / SolutionFeature / BenefitSpatialNumericalChronological(See “Presenting to Win” by Jerry Weissman for more examples)
26 The Ending End with a BANG! Repeat the Key Point Say thank you 2017年4月13日7时18分The EndingEnd with a BANG!“Tonight, we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be served.”George W. BushRepeat the Key Point“If you remember only one thing from this talk, then you should remember XXX”Say thank you
27 Review of Organizing Your Story 2017年4月13日7时18分Review of Organizing Your StoryOpening Key PointTell them what you’re going to sayBody (Repeat Key Point)Say itData Dump Main ThemesFlow Main ThemesTheme 1Issue ActionTheme 2Closing Key PointTell them what you said
28 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Learn Speaking SkillsDevelop Key PointOrganize StoryDesign GraphicsPractice TalkQ&ADelivery
29 Design Graphics PowerPoint only supports your talk Design principles 2017年4月13日7时18分Design GraphicsPowerPoint only supports your talkSpend more time on organization & delivery!Design principlesKeep it simpleApply psychologyMake it easy to followMake it attractiveYour titles should tell your story
30 2017年4月13日7时18分Why “Keep It Simple”?Aim to develop a consistent style, using the standard stylesheet whenever possible.One concept per slide.The font that is being used should be very large24 point or larger. I will now use smaller fonts to prove to you that it is a major strain to your eyes to read small fonts.The color of the font and the background should be in sharp contrast. If one is light, then the other should be dark. Otherwise it will be very hard to read.The use of bullets should be simple. Too many bullets distracts the user from listening to you.3 big sub-ideas (or bullets) is the most you should have.The entire slide should have fewer than 8 bullets and sub-bullets.I will add a few more bullets to show this is not a good ideaAnd one moreKeep the language used simple, so that the user doesn’t have to “think” to understand your point.Each bullet should fit in one line, because the idea of a bullet is to convey idea, headline, and server as a reminder (or cue) for you to describe and amplify.Parallel wording means the bullets are roughly parallel, and contain similar grammatical constructs. This can save the user a lot of time trying to “understand” what you said.
31 Keep It Simple Consistent look One concept per slide Readable 2017年4月13日7时18分Keep It SimpleConsistent lookOne concept per slideReadable>20 pointAvoid abbreviationUse shadow outline fontsContrast font & backgroundDon’t leave too much blank space
32 Keep It Simple : Bullets 2017年4月13日7时18分Keep It Simple : BulletsHeadline, not sentenceReminder for youConcise<4 top-level bullets<10 total bullets & sub-bulletsSimple languageOne line per bulletParallel wording
33 What’s wrong with this? A good speech Clear point 2017年4月13日7时18分What’s wrong with this?A good speechClear pointUnderstands what audience wantsOrganization based on logicPowerful openingEnding that people remember
34 Instead, do this…. A good speech Clear point 2017年4月13日7时18分Instead, do this….A good speechClear pointAppealing audience benefitLogical flowPowerful openingStrong close
35 Apply Psychology to Design 2017年4月13日7时18分Apply Psychology to DesignDon’t fight natural eye movementsMove left to rightReturn to upper left cornerSweep to lower right cornerSubliminal hintsGraphics to match your key pointAnticipationRequirementFast speedLow costEasy to useOur Solution
36 Apply Psychology to Design 2017年4月13日7时18分Apply Psychology to DesignDon’t fight natural eye movementsMove left to rightReturn to upper left cornerSweep to lower right cornerSubliminal hintsGraphics to match your key pointAnticipationAvoid bad signs
41 Make it Easy to Follow Use outline Use builds General goal: 2017年4月13日7时18分Make it Easy to FollowUse outlineHighlight upcoming sectionUse buildsRemind where you areGeneral goal:Don’t make the audience think (Other than what you’re saying)
42 Make It Attractive 20 hours on preparation 10 hours on practice 2017年4月13日7时18分Make It Attractive20 hours on preparation10 hours on practiceWhy not spend 1 hour on attractive design?
43 Instead of doing this… Cost Satisfaction Productivity Revenue 2017年4月13日7时18分Instead of doing this…CostSatisfactionProductivityRevenue
44 Why not do this… Productivity Cost Satisfaction Revenue 2017年4月13日7时18分Why not do this…CostProductivitySatisfactionRevenue
45 Instead of doing this… Bill Gates Steve Ballmer Steve Jobs 2017年4月13日7时18分Instead of doing this…Bill GatesBrilliant TechnologistSteve BallmerPowerful SalesmanSteve JobsPassionate EvangelistLou GerstnerLogical Businessman
46 Why not do this… Brilliant technologist Bill Gates Powerful salesman 2017年4月13日7时18分Why not do this…Bill GatesSteve BallmerSteve JobsLou GerstnerBrilliant technologistPowerful salesmanPassionate evangelistLogical Businessman
47 Your Titles Should Tell the Story Body & handsEyesVisual skillsPlay your voiceEnthusiasmVocal skills:Simple & ClearVerbal skillsWhat are speaking skills?Speaking skills are importantLearn speaking skillsWhat you’ll learn todayWhy be a good speaker?Use simple wordsWords + intonationApply psychology to designKeep it simplePowerPoint only supports talkDesign graphicsThe endingThe flowData dump & main themesThe bodyOrganizing the storyMust have audience benefitKey point = Goal of the talkDevelop Key PointFaceThe openingReview of organizing storyShow emotion!Most of the time: “I care a lot about this.” “I really believe in this.”“I love my work.”Sometimes (in response to questions).“This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.”“I will have nothing to do with this.”ConclusionGiving a good answerOpportunity to amplifyBe yourselfAudience participationHumorOvercoming nervousnessConfidence & passionDeliveryRehearsing your deliveryPractice your talkMake it attractiveMake it easy to followOvercoming language barrierQ&AUse outlineHighlight upcoming sectionUse buildsRemind where you areGeneral goal:Don’t make the audience think(Other than what you’re saying)“The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.”PericlesNot just “presentation”, but “persuasion”Influence a friend, colleague, or boss.Tell people what you did, and why it matters.Get people’s “mindshare”.
48 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Learn Speaking SkillsDevelop Key PointOrganize StoryDesign GraphicsPractice TalkQ&ADelivery
49 Rehearsing Your Content Prepare, prepare, prepareCustomize the talkWithin-talk referencesRepeat key pointRepeat main themesRepeat your company (university) namePractice to use same word(s) per conceptPractice transitions between slides
50 Rehearsing Your Delivery 2017年4月13日7时18分Rehearsing Your DeliveryRecord & listen to every talk at least twice!Best : PowerPoint featuresOK : Tape recorderGet the timing rightRunning out of time is a disasterPractice to an audience or record videoAsk experienced speaker to critiqueRecord video for critique
51 Next Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Learn Speaking SkillsDevelop Key PointOrganize StoryDesign GraphicsPractice TalkQ&ADelivery
52 Delivering the Talk Confidence & passion Overcoming language barrier 2017年4月13日7时18分Delivering the TalkConfidence & passionOvercoming language barrierOvercoming nervousnessHumorAudience participationBe yourself
53 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired: 2017年4月13日7时18分Confidence & PassionMake sure you’re not too tired:Get enough sleep the previous nightDrink (up to) 3 cups of coffee!No milkStand on left side of screen
55 Confidence & Passion Make sure you’re not too tired: 2017年4月13日7时18分Confidence & PassionMake sure you’re not too tired:Get enough sleep the previous nightDrink (up to) 3 cups of coffee!No milkStand on left side of screenDuring your talk, do not apologize“Sorry I’m behind on time”“Sorry this slide is so hard to read”
56 Overcoming Language Barrier 2017年4月13日7时18分Overcoming Language BarrierKnow your limitationsDon’t use fancy words, complex sentencesDon’t take any chance of looking sillyPrepare an outline/scriptRehearse before the talkDon’t have to use itNot OK to read your bulletsBut OK to read or memorize your speechPractice still requiredProper vocal & visual skills still required
57 Overcoming Nervousness 2017年4月13日7时18分Overcoming Nervousness“Do the thing you fearand the death of fear is certain.”-- Ralph Waldo EmersonIt is possible to hide nervousness!Don’t let the shaking show!Make a fist; hold the lecternSpeak loudlyTake a deep breathDon’t have to look at audience’s eyesLook at a friendly faceLook above people’s heads
58 Humor Good humor: How to tell a joke? Plan your humor: Relevant 2017年4月13日7时18分HumorGood humor:RelevantRespectfulShortHow to tell a joke?Prepare audiencePause after “punch line”Move on naturally if no reaction!Plan your humor:Remember what workedUse it again!
59 Audience Participation 2017年4月13日7时18分Audience Participation“I hear and I forget;I see and I remember;I do and I understand.”Ask audience a questionAnticipate their answer(s)!Respond with something interesting AND relevantAlso OK to ask before talk & include in talk
60 Be Yourself Don’t copy others’ styles Comfort zone Ideal role 2017年4月13日7时18分Be YourselfDon’t copy others’ stylesMany styles could be effectiveYou must be yourself to be credibleAdapt your style, but stay within “comfort zone”Bill GatesSteve BallmerSteve JobsIdeal roleBrilliant technologistPowerful salesmanPassionate evangelistComfort zoneGreat strategistTrustworthy CEOTechnology visionary
61 Last Topic: Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Learn Speaking SkillsDevelop Key PointOrganize StoryDesign GraphicsPractice TalkQ&ADelivery
62 Q&A: Opportunity to Amplify 2017年4月13日7时18分Q&A: Opportunity to AmplifyQ&A is your last chance to:Amplify your points (particularly the Key Point)Increase your credibilityIf people are too shy, you start!Hard questionsNo need to answer directlyBut don’t hide!Narrow questionsTake offline
63 Q&A – Giving A Good Answer 2017年4月13日7时18分Q&A – Giving A Good AnswerRespect the listenerDon’t argue or dismiss a questionRight body languageAnswer to the entire audienceRepeat the questionComplete if people cannot hearParaphrase to help amplify your point
64 Conclusion Anyone can become a good speaker; It just takes : 2017年4月13日7时18分ConclusionAnyone can become a good speaker;It just takes :a little skill,and a lot of practice!
65 Use of Demos / Multimedia 2017年4月13日7时18分Use of Demos / MultimediaKeeps the talk interestingDon’t overdo itShould be tied to contentOrdering :2,N, N-1, N-2,….3, 1