2Five Stages Self-Assessment Research Decision-Making Networks and ContactsWork
3Stage 1: Self-Assessment PersonalityValuesSkillsCareer interestsKnowledge and learning styleSelf-employmentOne of the most important factors in determining your happiness and success in a job is understanding your personality, also referred to as characteristics or attitudes.Have you ever wondered what causes someone to study for years to enter a career such as engineering or law while another person will look for the quickest way to make money? What causes someone to switch his or her career midstream? The answer to these questions is values. If you value good health, you will make time for daily exercise and proper nutrition. If you value career satisfaction, you will take time to examine your values and make choices that are consistent with them.A skill is a learned ability to do something well. Skills are the currency used by workers. In the labour market you receive pay in exchange for the skills that you offer and use at work. Individuals who can describe themselves to a potential employer in terms of their skills are more likely to find the work that they want and enjoy.Career Interests - organize the information from the previous sections; You will learn how to relate your vocational personality to career planningit is also important to consider your knowledge and learning style. Throughout your life, you have learned information by attending classes, working on projects, reading independently, traveling and many other methods. It is important at this stage to assess what you know and how you like to learn.Over the past decade an increasing number of individuals have chosen self-employment or entrepreneurship as a career option. Those who are self-employed or entrepreneurs are people who create a new product or provide a service and then proceed to put form to their dream by opening a small business. Consider the following questions:Do you welcome challenges? Is achievement important to you? Are you confident about your abilities?Do you like to be in control? Do you consider yourself a realistic planner? Are you persistent?Can you cope with uncertainty? Do you usually complete any task you start? Are you willing to take moderate risks?Do you consider yourself to be organized?
4John L. Holland Psychologist Career choice and satisfaction Vocational personality typesModelSelf-Directed SearchPsychologist who devoted his professional career to researching issues related to career choice and satisfaction.He developed a well-known theory when he found people needing help with career decisions can be supported by understanding their resemblance to six ideal vocational personality types. Work settings can also be categorized by their resemblance to six similar work environments. Because people search for environments that allow them to express their interests, skills, attitudes and values, and take on interesting problems and agreeable roles, work environments become populated by individuals with related occupational personality types.The descriptions of Holland’s personality types refer to idealized or pure types. They are visually represented by a hexagonal model. The types closes to each other on the hexagon have the most characteristics in common.Those that are furthest apart (opposite) have the least in common.Most likely you will fall into a combination of types.He designed several assessments based on this theory - including the Self-Directed Search.
6Realistic - Doers Active Stable Hands-on or manual activities Working with thingsPhysical activityOutdoorsPlants and animalsLearn by doingCommunicate franklyMaterial thingsSkilled in mechanical activitiesTechnical competenciesMilitary, electrician, engineer, vetHands-on – such as building, mechanics, machinery operation and athleticsWorking with things – prefer to work with things rather than ideas and peopleLearn by doing – in a practical, task-oriented setting, as opposed to spending extended periods of time in a classroomCommunicate in a frank, direct mannerValue material thingsSkilled – perceive themselves as skilled in mechanical and physical activities, but may be uncomfortable or less adept with human relationsTech – Preferred work environment fosters technical competencies and work that allows them to produce tangible resultsTypical realistic careers include those in the military, electrician, engineer and veterinarian
7Investigative – Problem Solvers AnalyticalIntellectualObservantResearchMathematicsScienceAmbiguous challengesLogicSolve problemsIntrospectiveAutonomousMedical technologist, biologist, chemist, systems analystEnjoy research, mathematical or scientific activitiesDrawn to ambiguous challenges and may feel stifled in highly structured environments.Enjoy using logic and solving highly complex, abstract problems.Introspective and focused on creative problem solving, therefore they often work autonomously and do not seek leadership roles.Place a high value on science and learning and perceive themselves as scholarly and having scientific or mathematical ability but lacking leadership and persuasive skills.Preferred work environment encourages scientific competencies, allows independent work, focuses on solving abstract, complex problems in original ways.Careers include -
8Artistic - Creators Original Intuitive Imaginative Self-expression FlexibilityAmbiguityImpulsiveEmotionalExpressive and openMusician, reporter, interior decoratorOriginal, intuitive and imaginative and enjoy creative activities such as composing or playing music, writing, drawing or painting, and acting in or directing stage productions.Seek opportunities for self-expression through artistic creation.Prefer flexibility and ambiguity and have an aversion to convention and conformity.Generally impulsive and emotional and tend to communicate in a very expressive and open mannger.They value aesthetics and view themselves as creative, non-conforming, and as appreciating or possessing musical, dramatic, artistic, or writing abilities while lacking clerical or organizational skills.Prefer work environments that foster creative competencies and encourages originality and use of the imagination in a flexible, unstructured setting.Typical careers -
9Social - Helpers Humanistic Idealistic Responsible Concerned Group activitiesHuman relationshipsSocial activitiesSolving interpersonal problemsWorking with peopleWarm and tactfulPersuasiveTeacher, counselor, social workerHumanistic, idealistic, responsible and concerned with the welfare of others.Enjoy participating in group activities and helping, training, caring for, counseling or developing others.Generally focused on human relationships, and enjoy social activities and solving interpersonal problems.Seek opportunities to work as part of a team, solve problems through discussions, and utilize interpersonal skills, but may avoid activities that involve systematic use of equipment or machines.Genuinely enjoy working with people, therefore they communicate in a warm and tactful manner and can be persuasive.View themselves as understanding, helpful, cheerful, and skilled in teaching, but lacking mechanical ability.Preferred work environment encourages teamwork and allows for significant interaction with others.Typical careers -
10Enterprising - Persuaders EnergeticAmbitiousAdventurousSociableSelf-confidentPersuasiveAssertiveSelf-confidentLeadersSalesperson, business executive, managerEnergetic, ambitious, adventurous, sociable and self-confident.Enjoy activities that require them to persuade others, such as sales, and seek out leadership roles.Invigorated by using their interpersonal, leadership, and persuasive abilities to obtain organizational goals or economic gain, but may avoid routine or systematic activities.Often effective public speakers and are generally sociable, but may be viewed as domineering.View themselves as assertive, self-confident, and skilled in leadership and speaking but lacking in scientific abilities.Prefer work environments that encourage them to engage in such activities as leadership, management, and selling and rewards them through the attainment of money, power, and status.Typical careers -
11Conventional - Organizers EfficientCarefulConformingOrganizedConscientiousWell-defined instructionsOrganize, systematicMaintain dataOperating equipmentThoroughPersistentReliableSecretary, accountant, bankerEfficient, careful, conforming, organized, and conscientious.Comfortable working within an established chain of command and prefer to carry out well-defined instructions over assuming leadership roles.Prefer organized, systematic activities and have an aversion to ambiguity.Skilled in and often enjoy maintaining and manipulating data, organizing schedules, and operating office equipment.Rarely seek out leadership roles, but are thorough, persistent, and reliable in carrying out tasks.View themselves as responsible, orderly, efficient, and possessing clerical, organizational, and numerical abilities, but also seem themselves as unimaginative or lacking in creativity.Preferred work environment – fosters organizational competencies, such as record keeping and data management in a structured operation and places high value on conformity and dependability.Typical careers -
12Stage 2: Research Career trends Information search Information interviewsJob shadowingGaining experienceWhen making career decisions, it is important to remember that your choices must fit into the realities of the working world. It is possible to use trends to your advantage by utilizing those aspects of your personality and experience that are most compatible with employment demands. It will be up to you to gain a basic understanding of these trends so that you can adjust your career preparation and take advantage of emerging possibilities.The world of work is very complex. New occupations are emerging while other occupations are on the decline.It is possible to discover career opportunities by learning what it is important to search for and where to search for it. Information from State 1 will help you to identify opportunities as you conduct your research.The what includes the characteristics, values, skills and knowledge requirements of the occupational role. Additional material you will want to know includes: duties and responsibilities, working conditions (e.g., hours, physical demands of job, physical environment and level of stress), salary range or compensation for work, opportunities for advancement, related occupations and future outlook predictions.One of the most effective methods of obtaining more detailed information about a particular career is to conduct an information interview with someone who holds a position that interests you. Information interviews are beneficial because they allow you to: Explore careers and clarify your career goal, Expand your professional network,Build confidence for your job interviews, Access the most up-to-date career information, Identify your professional strengths and weaknesses, See the organization from the insideThe goal of job shadowing is to gather critical information during your information exploration process.Gaining experience in an actual work role is the best way to determine if the nature of the work is an acceptable ‘fit’ or match with your personality. There are several ways to gain experience such as part-time and full-time paid work or volunteer work. The sponsorship can be through co-operative education, casual employment, summer jobs, contract work, regular employment, work-study arrangements, internship, or volunteer positions. In addition to the job content knowledge you will gain, there are extra benefits including: Referrals for future jobs through the network that you build, Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of your work-related skills, The potential to demonstrate skills such as communication, analysis and problem-solving, Demonstration of your initiative and establishment of a track record for potential employers
13Stage 3: Decision-Making Career objectivesPersonal objectivesLifelong learningGoal settingThe time has come for you to clarify your career objectives. If you knew you would succeed, what is the type of work that you would do? This is the time to make a commitment. In order to begin the next phase, you need to have a sense of direction, some general goals to work towards.Organize your ideas into 3 groups: long-term, medium-term and short-term. By having longer-term goals, you will be able to set your course to becoming successful in your career. Then by working backwards to the present, you will be able to take a step at a time toward your ultimate goal.This is why your personality and attitudes are the most important predictors of success in your career and in your life generally. You can’t accomplish more than you believe you can. Your thoughts, positive or negative, come into play (self-fulfilling prophecy). How you accept your own abilities will define whether or not you achieve your goals.In conjunction with your career objectives from the section above, decide upon your goals in other areas of your life: family and friends; sports and physical fitness; leisure activities including travel; and finances including retirement funding, etc.Physical: nutritious food, safe water, healthy air, exerciseMental: intellectual challenges, knowledge, thoughtsEmotional: feelings, belonging, securityPhilosophical: authenticity, spirituality, meaning, attitudesSocial: relationships with others, friendshipsCareer: finances, fulfillmentRecreational: leisure, fun, sportsChange is everywhere in the world, in all organizations. Individuals will need to change to keep pace. That means continuous learning and updating—an ongoing adjustment to your portfolio of skills and knowledge. Motivation can come from several benefits: increased job satisfaction, better prospects for work, personal satisfaction, and increased pay.A goal is an aim or an end towards which effort is directed. A goal is where you want to be. Developing one requires conscious projection into the future in order to bring clarity to the direction you should take now.
14SMART Goal Setting Specific Measurable Action oriented Realistic Time framedSpecific means detailed, particular or focused. A goal is specific when you know exactly what is to be achieved and accomplished. A simple goal is easier to understand. Imagine your goal as specifically as you can. Ask: Who, where, what, when, how…specifically?Measurable goals are quantifiable. Think of the evidence that will let you know you have achieved it. For example, words like ‘better’ or ‘faster’ are not quantifiable. “Increase my course grades by 10%” provides a clear measure for a goal.Action oriented consider the language you use when writing your goals. Avoid wording goals in terms of, “I hope to have a job in a field related to my area of study”. Rather, use wording such as “I will complete 10 information interviews in the financial services industry by January 31, 20XX.”Realistic goals are practical and possible. Realistic goals are a balance between what is hard and what is easy to achieve. They require a ‘stretch’. It’s that little bit extra in performance that makes people progress and improve. Is your goal realistic and reasonable? goals are self-maintained; the achievement of the goal is up to you alone. There are many aspects of life that involve dependent relations with others. Your goal should clearly speak to things that you have control over.Timely goals mean that they are scheduled. There is a finite duration to your effort, a deadline. People can put off doing things if no deadline is set because human nature usually finds something else to do on the way. For example, “by the end of June” is more specific than “toward the end of June”. However, the most precise statement is: June 30, 20XX.
15Stage 4: Networks & Contacts Work searchResumes and lettersInterviewsTypical and creative job search techniques – ads, internet, word of mouth, blind lettersYou will want to do some employer research to: (1) see if you are interested in working for a particular company or organization, (2) find out about different types of jobs or work that you may be hired to do, and (3) prepare for an interview.Networking is making connections with individuals and groups of people, and can be accomplished by personal meetings, through the telephone or fax, on paper, or via the Internet. It is estimated that 65-90% of jobs are found through networking. An informal survey among your employed friends would reveal that many, if not most, found employment this way. You can't begin networking, however, until you have defined the type of work you want.The purpose of the resume is to get an interview. It is like an advertisement: it should attract attention, create interest, describe accomplishments and invite a person to contact you. The average amount of time an employer takes to initially scan a resume is 30 seconds. It is very important that the resume be brief, one page if possible and two pages the limit. The resume tells a potential employer what you can do and have done, who you are, and what you know. It also states what kind of work you seek. The key is that the resume must provide enough information for the employer to evaluate your qualifications and interest the employer enough to invite you for an interview.Effective letter writing is an essential aspect of your job search. Do you want to convince a potential employer not to hire you? Send a resume with no cover letter. Send a form letter addressed to “The Hiring Manager”. Or address your letter to “Dear Sir”, and have it opened by a female manager!Good writing takes time. Compose letters that reflect your own personality. Do not copy someone else's letters. Send handwritten correspondence only when requested by the employer. A Cover or Broadcast letter accompanies your resume to introduce you to a prospective employer as a knowledgeable and capable applicant. You may wish to send your application package by overnight delivery to show the urgency and importance you place on being of service to the company.The interview is a mutual exchange of information between an employer and a candidate for a position. The primary objectives are to:Supply information about yourself that is not contained in your resumeShow that you understand yourself and have a sense of direction in your careerEnable the employer to evaluate your personality and attitudes in terms of the demands of the organization and the positionAllow you to gain information about the organization and the job, which is not available through other sourcesGive you and the employer an opportunity to discuss the desirability of further contact or an offer of employment
16Stage 5: Work Offers and acceptance Success at work Before you accept an offer for employment, take the time necessary to evaluate the offer. Don't jump at the first job offer you get. If you make a mistake, you might end up stuck in an unsuitable position. With the negative feelings that would likely arise, you will find it difficult to talk about that job in interviews for other positions in the future. However, weigh the fear of being unemployed with the reality of the job market. You may decide that taking a job for now is not a choice.After you have successfully completed those critical steps to finding your job (whether paid or volunteer), there are steps to take to ensure that it will be a pleasant experience. During your first few weeks or months you will go through an orientation and probation period. No matter what your experience, any new job can be tiring at the start. Everything is new and there is much to learn. You will also be meeting many new people. Plan for this transition by allowing adequate leisure time and by taking care of your health needs. These changes can be overwhelming, particularly if you haven’t prepared for them.Whatever your work experience is, take time to reflect. Write your thoughts in a journal to keep a permanent record. Work provides excellent opportunities to learn. To motivate learning while you are engaged in work, set learning objectives. Writing your objectives provides a reminder of what you wish to accomplish.