Presentation on theme: "METODE DAN TEKNIK SURVEI SUMBEDAYA LAHAN. LINGKUP SURVEI TANAH 1.Purpose 2.Types 3.Methods and Techniques 4.Mapping units 5.Procedures 6.Equipments 7.Description."— Presentation transcript:
METODE DAN TEKNIK SURVEI SUMBEDAYA LAHAN
LINGKUP SURVEI TANAH 1.Purpose 2.Types 3.Methods and Techniques 4.Mapping units 5.Procedures 6.Equipments 7.Description and sampling 8.legends and symbols in soil maps 9.Contents of soil survey reports 10.Interpretation 11.soil information system Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 A Compendium of On-Line Soil Survey Information Compiled by D. G. Rossiter Department of Earth Systems Analysis University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-information Science & Earth Observation Enschede, the Netherlands Soil is the thin skin of the Earth's surface where the atmosphere meets the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and of course the anthrosphere. Soils vary tremendously in their properties and ecological function. The job of soil survey is to map the distribution of the different soil types, describe these types, and interpret the maps in a form that is useful for land management and ecosystem studies. Systematic soil survey has been carried out for over one hundred years. As in other applied sciences, conceptual and technological advances are making soil survey more reliable, cheaper and useful. Diunduh dari: http://www.itc.nl/~rossiter/research/rsrch_ss.html 28/8/2012http://www.itc.nl/~rossiter/research/rsrch_ss.html
TUJUAN SURVEI TANAH 1.Systematic description and identification of soils properties 2.Soil classification 3.study the pedogenic processes 4.Soil mapping 5.Interpretation for different land uses, including crop suitability, utility, soil management, soil productivity, soil quality,… Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Klasifikasi Tanah Usaha membeda-bedakan dan mengelompokkan tanah berdasarkan sifat-sifatnya Tujuan Mengetahui sifat dan ciri tanah pada masing-masing kelompok tanah (kelas tanah) sehingga memudahkan pengguna tanah untuk mengelola tanah tersebut agar dapat berproduksi secara optimal Why Classify Soils? 1.Organize knowledge to enable investigation and communication (structure/organization) 2.Provide framework for establishing relationships among soils and their environment (scientific) 3.Establish groupings for interpretations (utilitarian) – Optimal use – Hazard/limitation/remediation assessment – Potential productivity – Framework for technology transfer/information dissemination Diunduh dari: http://dc366.4shared.com/doc/N3Svf2Wj/preview.html 28/8/2012http://dc366.4shared.com/doc/N3Svf2Wj/preview.html
TIPE-TIPE SURVEI TANAH 1.1st order: very intensive (individual sites), <1 ha, 1:15,840 or larger scale 2.2nd order: intensive (general agriculture, urban planning), 0.6-4 ha, 1:12,000 -1: 31,680 scale 3.3rd order: intensive (range, community planning), 1.6-16 ha, 1:20,000-1:64,000 scale. 4.4th order: extensive (broad statement,land use potential and land management), 16-252 ha, 1:64,000 to 1:250,000 scale. 5.5th order:very extensive (region planning), 250-4,000 ha, 1:250,000 to 1:1,000,000 scale. Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Survei Tanah (Bagian I: Kerapatan Pengamatan setiap Survei) by Dr. Ir. Abdul Madjid, MS Berdasarkan intensitas pengamatannya, survei tanah ada 6 tingkatan, yaitu: (1) Bagan, (2) Eksplorasi, (3) Tinjau, (4) Semi Detail, (5) Detail, dan (6) Sangat Detail. Survei Tanah Tingkat Sangat Detail: Survei tanah tingkat sangat detail mensyaratkan pengamatan lapang dengan tingkat kerapatan pengamatan lapangan: 2 titik pengamatan untuk setiap 1 hektar; kisaran skala yang dihasilkan antara: 1 : 10.000 atau skala yang lebih besar. Pada umumnya skala yang dihasilkan adalah 1 : 5.000; sehingga memiliki luas tiap 1 cm2 pada peta adalah 0,25 hektar; Satuan peta yang diperoleh adalah: Konsosiasi; satuan tanah yang ditampilkan adalah Fase dari Seri. Contoh penggunaan peta tanah ini adalah untuk Perencanaan dan pengelolaan lahan di tingkat petani, penyusunan rancangan usaha tani konservasi; intensifikasi penggunaan lahan kebun. Diunduh dari: http://dasar2ilmutanah.blogspot.com/2009/04/survei-tanah-bagian-i-kerapatan.html… 28/8/2012
METODE SURVEI TANAH Grid sampling (every 200m, or 500m, or larger distance) Transect sampling Random sampling Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines area, Ireland David McGrath, Chaosheng Zhang, Owen T. Carton Environmental Pollution. Volume 127, Issue 2, January 2004, Pages 239–248.Volume 127, Issue 2 Spatial distribution and hazard assessment of soil lead in the mining site of Silvermines, Ireland, were investigated using statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of Pb and other heavy metals were observed. Box–Cox transformation was applied in order to achieve normality in the data set and to reduce the effect of outliers. Geostatistical analyses were carried out, including calculation of experimental variograms and model fitting. The ordinary point kriging estimates of Pb concentration were mapped. Kriging standard deviations were regarded as the standard deviations of the interpolated pixel values, and a second map was produced, that quantified the probability of Pb concentration higher than a threshold value of 1000 mg/kg. These maps provide valuable information for hazard assessment and for decision support.
SATUAN PEMETAAN TANAH Definition: a collection of areas defined and named the same in terms of their soil components or miscellaneous area or both. Soil series (or soil types, or soil phase) as a mapping unit in Taiwan rural soils Soil complexes : Two soil series in one mapping unit for detail soil survey (>1:24,000) Soil association : Two soil series in one mapping unit for reconnaissance soil survey (<1:24,000) Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 A pedon is a three-dimensional sample that extends from the soil surface to the deepest roots or genetic soil horizons. The area covered by a pedon varies from 10 - 100 square feet, depending on changes in soil properties. Groups of pedons with very similar characteristics that are closely associated in the landscape are called polypedons. Polypedons that have a common set of characteristics that fall within a particular range are referred to as a soil series (Brady and Weil, 1999). Soil series are the basic units used by the U.S.D.A Natural Resources Conservation Service to map soils within the United States. Diunduh dari: http://www.soilsurvey.org/tutorial/page1.as p 27/8/2012 http://www.soilsurvey.org/tutorial/page1.as p
PROSEDUR SURVEI TANAH Collect the environmental maps including climate, geology, river, vegetation types, topography, …….. Legands sampling based on different conditions for establish the classification system in survey area. Selections of soil survey methods Lab. preparation on Land units in slopelands or sampling sites in rural soils soil survey in the field and soil maping in the field revised the legand series and soil mapping Publish the soil survey reports and soil maps Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Spatial variability of Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain soil physical properties: Implications for site- specific management Miressa DufferaMiressa Duffera, Jeffrey G. White, Randy Weisz.Jeffrey G. White Geoderma. Volume 137, Issues 3–4, 15 January 2007, Pages 327–339 Map of North Carolina showing the three physiographic regions, location of the study field within the Coastal Plain, and distribution of soil sampling sites within soil map units in the study field.
PERLENGKAPAN SURVEI TANAH Spades, shavels, picks, and bars Soil Augers or tubes A pickup truck with a power probe and a tool compartment mounted in the back. A backhoe mounted on the rear of a small tractor A powerful auger mounted on a pickup truck a sampling tube mounted on a pickup truck all-terrain vehicle Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 How to collect a soil sample Your objective is to collect 15 to 20 cores from the area to be sampled (Figure 1). You need to collect more cores per field in a pasture than in a row-crop field because there typically is much more variation in a pasture from manure piles and urine spots. The best approach is to travel across the entire area to be sampled in a zigzag pattern, randomly selecting spots to take a core (Figure 1). Sampling depth is 6 to 7 inches for most objectives in pastures (Figure 2). Do not take too shallow a sample as this will overestimate the soil fertility level in your pasture. Diunduh dari: http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9215 27/8/2012http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9215. Figure 1. Obtaining a quality soil sample. Figure 2 Obtaining a 6- to 7-inch core for soil sampling. Discard organic duff on top of soil. Put 6- to 7-inch soil core in sampling bucket. Discard soil below 6 to 7 inches.
DESKRIPSI PROFIL TANAH (PEDON) Environmental conditions including locations, geology, topography, climate, vegetation, parent materials, drainage, stoneness, horizons, samplers, describers, ….. Morphological characteristics of soil pedons including soil color, depth, texture, structure, consistence, mottles, roots, biopores, stone %, other properties, boundary, ………... Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 As you dig down into the ground the soil composition (the way the soil is made up) changes. There are four distinct layers of soil under the leaf litter. Diunduh dari: 27/8/2012
INTERPRETASI TANAH 1.Soil management groups 2.National specific-use placements including limitation ratings, suitability rating, …… 3.Local relative placements 4.Interpretive soil properties for soil and crop quality Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Land Evaluation The main activities in a land evaluation are as follows: 1.Initial consultations, concerned with the objectives of the evaluation, and the data and assumptions on which it is to be based 2.Description of the kinds of land use to be considered, and establishment of their requirements 3.Description of land mapping units, and derivation of land qualities 4.Comparison of kinds of land use with the types of land present 5.Economic and social analysis 6.Land suitability classification (qualitative or quantitative) 7.Presentation of the results of the evaluation. The identification and description of the type" of land use which are to be considered is an essential part of the evaluation procedure. Some restrictions to the range of uses relevant for consideration will have been set by the objectives and assumptions. Two situations may be distinguished: 1.The kinds of land use are specified at the beginning of the evaluation procedure. 2.The kinds of land use are broadly described at the beginning and subject to modification and adjustment in accordance with the findings of the evaluation procedure. Diunduh dari: http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5310E/x5310e05.htm 28/8/2012
INTERPRETATIVE APPLICATIONS äNational Inventory grouping äLand use planning 4 farmland, rangeland, forest lands, windbreaks, recreation, wildlife habitat, construction materials, building sites, waste disposal, water management, ……... Soil management grouping Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Matching of Land Use with Land Matching represents the essence of the interpretative step following the resources surveys in the land evaluation procedure, and is based on the functional relationships that exist between the land qualities, the possibilities for land improvement and the requirements of the land use. In its simplest form matching is the confrontation of physical requirements of specific crops (or grasses, trees, etc.) with the land conditions to give a prediction of crop performance. Matching becomes more complex when the production factor is complemented by other performance conditioning characteristics of the land utilization type, including non-physical aspects like labour intensity and capital intensity. Among the purposes served by matching are: 1.To check the relevance and refine the descriptions of land utilization types 2.To permit systematic determination of the management and improvement specifications of each land utilization type on each land mapping unit to which it is suited, and thus of the required inputs (in terms of capital, labour, etc.) 3.To estimate the magnitude of the benefits from each land utilization type on each suitable land mapping unit. Diunduh dari: http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5310E/x5310e05.htm 28/8/2012
SISTEM INFORMASI TANAH Use of soil survey information General soil maps Technical reports Automated soil data bases for soil interpretation and computer storage for land planning and soil management Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Mapping Technology Mapping Technology is a combination of the fields of cartography and geographic information systems. The program at Mansfield provides a strong background in map design and compilation as well as a good understanding of data management and an introduction to programming. The curriculum requires courses in map reading and air photo interpretation, remote sensing and GIS as well as the series of cartography courses. Graduates of this relatively new program (established in 2000) work for engineering firms, mapping firms and local and regional government offices. Diunduh dari: http://geoggeol.mansfield.edu/what-can-i- study/mapping-technology/…..28/8/2012
Soil Maps Scale is 1:25,000 in soil maps Soil type is the mapping unit in rural soils and soil phase in hillland soils and forest soils Relationships of soil series was based on parent material, profile texture, soil reaction, and categories of drainage Diunduh dari: www.ac.ntu.edu.tw/soilsc/..….. 25/8/2012 Jenis Tanah Tinjau DAS Jeneberang Jenis tanah yang ada di DAS Je’neberang berdasarkan dari data dan peta skala 1 : 100.000 yang dikeluarkan oleh pihak Bappeda Kabupaten Gowa ada empat jenis yaitu: (1) Aluvial yaitu jenis tanah yang terangkut oleh sungai dan setiap horison pada umumnya bertalihan dengan sejarah pegendapan, (2) Andosol cokelat adalah umumnya berwarna hitam, kerapatan lindak kurang dari 0,85% gr/cm 3, banyak mengandung bahan amorf, atau lebih dari 60% terdiri dari abu vulkanik, (3) Litosol Cokelat Kekuningan yaitu merupakan bagian dari tanah entisol yaitu masih menunjukkan asal bahan induk, dan (4) Komplek mediteran kemerahan dan Latosol yaitu tanah dengan zarah- zarah lempung diendapkan pada horison B (berlempung) dan jenuh dengan basa (>50%). Diunduh dari; http://paint-earth.blogspot.com/2008/11/jenis- tanah-tinjau-das-jeneberang.html… 28/8/2012