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SLEEP APNEA & OBESITY Juan A. Albino, MD, FCCP Village Sleep Lab 751-4955; April 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "SLEEP APNEA & OBESITY Juan A. Albino, MD, FCCP Village Sleep Lab 751-4955; April 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 SLEEP APNEA & OBESITY Juan A. Albino, MD, FCCP Village Sleep Lab ; April 2006

2 Thank You !!! Cathy L. Klinglesmith, TOPS Cathy L. Klinglesmith, TOPS Phillip Ratliff, AWAKE Group ( ) Phillip Ratliff, AWAKE Group ( ) Normarie M. Albino M.D., President, Wife Normarie M. Albino M.D., President, Wife Heather Ellington, Office Manager Heather Ellington, Office Manager John Crawford, Technical Director John Crawford, Technical Director Thomas Chaput, Sleep Technologist Thomas Chaput, Sleep Technologist Tamara Dillon, Sleep Technologist Tamara Dillon, Sleep Technologist Meagin Franey, Receptionist Meagin Franey, Receptionist

3 Common Sleep Disorders Insomnia: wants to sleep but cannot Insomnia: wants to sleep but cannot Sleep Deprivation: does not want to sleep but can; problem of sleep quantity Sleep Deprivation: does not want to sleep but can; problem of sleep quantity Sleep apnea: sleepy during day, snores at night because of obstruction in throat; problem of sleep quality Sleep apnea: sleepy during day, snores at night because of obstruction in throat; problem of sleep quality Restless Legs Syndrome: leg discomfort, relieved by movement that prevents sleep Restless Legs Syndrome: leg discomfort, relieved by movement that prevents sleep

4 Good Sleep Hygiene: Basics Regular times for sleeping and awakening Regular times for sleeping and awakening Maintain bedroom dark, quiet, comfortable Maintain bedroom dark, quiet, comfortable Use bed only for sleep and sex Use bed only for sleep and sex Avoid late daytime naps Avoid late daytime naps Avoid at night: alcohol, caffeine, nicotine Avoid at night: alcohol, caffeine, nicotine Sleep around 8 hours every night Sleep around 8 hours every night Prudent exercise and eating Prudent exercise and eating Avoid thinking of stressful problems Avoid thinking of stressful problems

5 Restless Legs Syndrome Leg discomfort, worse at night, relieved by movement, affects 5% of population Leg discomfort, worse at night, relieved by movement, affects 5% of population Familial, begins in childhood Familial, begins in childhood Associated with iron deficiency, drugs, Periodic Limb Movement of Sleep Associated with iron deficiency, drugs, Periodic Limb Movement of Sleep Easily treatable with medicines Easily treatable with medicines Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation, June K. Wharton ( ) Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation, June K. Wharton ( )

6 Sleep Deprivation Disasters: Exxon Valdez, Challenger Space Shuttle, Chernoble Nuclear Plant Disasters: Exxon Valdez, Challenger Space Shuttle, Chernoble Nuclear Plant 33% of fatal truck accidents 33% of fatal truck accidents 10% of fatal car accidents 10% of fatal car accidents Impairment the same whether: drunk, sleep deprived (<4-6hrs.), sleep apnea Impairment the same whether: drunk, sleep deprived (<4-6hrs.), sleep apnea Must be taken seriously: sleep 8 hours Must be taken seriously: sleep 8 hours Leads to obesity Leads to obesity

7 Chronic Insomnia Acute Insomnia (<4 weeks): stress, illness Acute Insomnia (<4 weeks): stress, illness Chronic Insomnia: >4 weeks, often years Chronic Insomnia: >4 weeks, often years Treat basic problem: 50% psychological Treat basic problem: 50% psychological Treat primary insomnia, begins childhood Treat primary insomnia, begins childhood Psychotherapy and behavioral therapy Psychotherapy and behavioral therapy Medications, new ones coming out Medications, new ones coming out PCP, Psychologists, Psychiatrists PCP, Psychologists, Psychiatrists

8 Sleep Apnea: Risk Factors Family history Family history Obesity: 80 % of sleep apnea patients Obesity: 80 % of sleep apnea patients Increasing age Increasing age Male gender Male gender Large tonsils / adenoids Large tonsils / adenoids Small mandible, large neck Small mandible, large neck Smoking, alcohol, sedatives Smoking, alcohol, sedatives

9 Sleep Apnea: Consequences Social / Psychological: work, family Social / Psychological: work, family Personal: fatigue, tired, depression, irritability, impotence, memory Personal: fatigue, tired, depression, irritability, impotence, memory More accidents: work home motor vehicle More accidents: work home motor vehicle Higher death rates with severe apnea Higher death rates with severe apnea Hypertension, Congestive Heart Failure Hypertension, Congestive Heart Failure Associated: Heart Attacks, Strokes, A Fib Associated: Heart Attacks, Strokes, A Fib Promotes obesity and diabetes Promotes obesity and diabetes

10 What is OSA? Cessation of airflow with ongoing respiratory effort NormalSnoringSleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea

11 Sleep Apnea: Treatment Behavioral: Weight Loss, Sleep Position (Sleep on side, head raised), Oxygen, Avoid sedatives and alcohol Behavioral: Weight Loss, Sleep Position (Sleep on side, head raised), Oxygen, Avoid sedatives and alcohol CPAP: proven therapy, needs motivation: widely available CPAP: proven therapy, needs motivation: widely available Surgery: tracheostomy, tonsillectomy, pull forth mandible or tongue Surgery: tracheostomy, tonsillectomy, pull forth mandible or tongue Dental appliances: also pull forth mandible or tongue; expertise necessary Dental appliances: also pull forth mandible or tongue; expertise necessary

12 Treatment - CPAP treatment –Positive pressure maintains airway patencey –Titration –100% effective CPAP therapy Treatment Options

13 Linkage Obesity, sleep, stress, diet, and exercise Obesity, sleep, stress, diet, and exercise One study: if not enough sleep wake up with greater hunger One study: if not enough sleep wake up with greater hunger Proper amounts of sleep and exercise decrease appetite and obesity Proper amounts of sleep and exercise decrease appetite and obesity Much easier to obtain proper sleep and treat sleep apnea than to diet Much easier to obtain proper sleep and treat sleep apnea than to diet

14 Sleep Apnea & Other Conditions Diabetes greatly worsened by Sleep Apnea Diabetes greatly worsened by Sleep Apnea Better control of Sleep Apnea leads to better control of Diabetes Better control of Sleep Apnea leads to better control of Diabetes Sleep deprivation in normal young people leads to a diabetic state Sleep deprivation in normal young people leads to a diabetic state Hypertension caused and worsened by Sleep Apnea Hypertension caused and worsened by Sleep Apnea Fibromyalgia has a strong component of sleep disorder, new treatment: Xyrem Fibromyalgia has a strong component of sleep disorder, new treatment: Xyrem

15 Obesity Obesity, Sleep Apnea promote each other Obesity, Sleep Apnea promote each other Hormonal links: leptin decreases and ghrelin increases hunger, while having opposite effects on sleep Hormonal links: leptin decreases and ghrelin increases hunger, while having opposite effects on sleep Unfortunately medical trials with leptin have not been fruitful Unfortunately medical trials with leptin have not been fruitful Body is programmed: if not sleeping then eat more, in particular CHO and fat Body is programmed: if not sleeping then eat more, in particular CHO and fat

16 Obesity and Sleep Deprivation Direct link with avoiding sleep and obesity Direct link with avoiding sleep and obesity Risk of obesity rises with sleep deprivation Risk of obesity rises with sleep deprivation Less than 4 hours : 73% risk Less than 4 hours : 73% risk Five hours : 50% risk Five hours : 50% risk Six hours : 23% risk Six hours : 23% risk Less sleep: lower leptin levels Less sleep: lower leptin levels Obese persons sleep less Obese persons sleep less

17 Obesity & Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea, obesity promote each other Sleep apnea, obesity promote each other BMI: Body Mass Index BMI: Body Mass Index Underweight: <19 Underweight: <19 Normal : 19 – 24 Normal : 19 – 24 Overweight : 25 – 29 Overweight : 25 – 29 Obese : 30 – 39 Obese : 30 – 39 Morbidly Obese: 40 or above Morbidly Obese: 40 or above If obese RISK of Sleep Apnea is the BMI If obese RISK of Sleep Apnea is the BMI

18 Approach to Weight Loss Directly Dieting in long run: 5 to 10% Directly Dieting in long run: 5 to 10% By regular Exercise: 20 to 30% By regular Exercise: 20 to 30% Avoid Sleep Deprivation when associated with obesity: 50 to 70% Avoid Sleep Deprivation when associated with obesity: 50 to 70% Treatment of Sleep Apnea associated with obesity: 50 to 70% Treatment of Sleep Apnea associated with obesity: 50 to 70% Treating sleep disorders is a promising approach to obesity control Treating sleep disorders is a promising approach to obesity control

19 Websites National Sleep Foundation: sleepfoundation.org National Sleep Foundation: sleepfoundation.org American Sleep Apnea Association: sleepapnea.org American Sleep Apnea Association: sleepapnea.org Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation: rls.org Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation: rls.org National Center on Sleep Disorders: healthfinder.gov/orgs/HR2536.htm National Center on Sleep Disorders: healthfinder.gov/orgs/HR2536.htm

20 Books The Promise of Sleep by William Dement The Promise of Sleep by William Dement Sleeping Well by Michael Thorpy Sleeping Well by Michael Thorpy No More Sleepless Nights by Peter Hauri No More Sleepless Nights by Peter Hauri A Woman’s Guide to Sleep Disorders by Meir H. Kryger A Woman’s Guide to Sleep Disorders by Meir H. Kryger


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