Presentation on theme: "GIS for Politics Andrew U. Frank Geoinfo TU Vienna"— Presentation transcript:
GIS for Politics Andrew U. Frank Geoinfo TU Vienna firstname.lastname@example.org
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 2 Key Experience: Comparing AM/FM with GIS in mid ‘80s: success reports for AM/FM hopeful projects with GIS Why?
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 3 Why is a Technology Successful? Technologist push what is technologically feasible. Success stories: Fax, www GIS did not grow as quickly, despite potential for use. Consider: Social demand! Do we respond to demands?
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 4 My background dipl.ing. Surveying from ETH Zurich doctorate in database modeling for GIS NCGIA - U Maine research focus at TU Vienna: modeling with cognitive science perspective economics and marketing for GIS
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 5 My approach to GIS initially: concern for the limited natural resources. I hoped GIS would help to a better world. Folk theorem: More information leads to better decisions. I still believe in rationality, even in politics.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 6 GIS Today: - successful in day to day management of administrative data -support for planning Rapid growth, but not commensurate with potential.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 7 GI used in Political Decisions Substantial potential, but seldom used. Exceptions: -Political campaigns, - redistricting Why not more use for decision making.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 8 Reasons for the lack of use of GIS in political decision making A technologist answer: Politicians are not interested. A practical answer: GIS are too complex to be used. Improvements of user interfaces are necessary! Neither of the two are sufficient answers.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 9 Does the GIS provide the Information Politicians need? Politicians focus on - changes - decide on actions to change situation to improve - concentrate on situation affecting the population Similar question can be asked for other potential users.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 10 What Information Produces a GIS Detailed information about current state. Static Information often related to land cover (data from remote sensing). Limited information on social parameters.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 11 Case: European Agricultural Politics Known: current situation Required: a new policy to - reduce cost to EU - improve environment - balance social situation Possible actions: change rules for subsidies Eminently a “GIS” type problem.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 12 What is Required? Data about change. Integration of data from environment, agriculture and social system. Help to predict effects of rule changes. Models for processes. Methods to evaluate alternatives.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 13 Data Quality Required Politically fiable Generalized data Rational chain of arguments to link observations to actions Examples from past for justification
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 14 Integrate Physical and Human Geography Data The issues are at the interaction of humans with the environment. The GIS must integrate the data from environmental sensors with the data from the administrative system. Technology: Seamless integration of raster and vector technology Interoperability of GIS of different agencies
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 15 Technology required for spatio-temporal data Change is crucial, To describe change a temporal database is required. Watchword: No GIS without time! (the requirement is similar for most administrative applications of GIS)
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 16 Technology required to Model Process Politicians decide about rules, not about states. (the same for urban planners). Process models connect the rules with the state and result in a model of the future state. This future state can be evaluated to assess the desirability of the new rule.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 17 Limitation to Static Data is in the Logical Foundation First order predicate calculus is de rigor for CS. Base for Relational Data Model. Complex ‘temporal logics.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 18 Higher Order Languages In first order languages functions, which are the model of process and change, are not generalizable f (a) is first order, but not for all f where f (a) = b is f (b) = a
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 19 Potential Solution Use second order calculus! For Technologists: - Functional programming language based on higher order languages merged with - Object-Oriented Technology
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 20 Haskell - a functional language with performance within a factor of 3... 7 to C++ - logically clean - spatial temporal databases using a temporal ER model (Chorochronos project)
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 21 Conclusion 1: Geographic Information Product - GIP 1. Start with potential user and the decision which must be taken. 2. Consider the information required for the decision. 3. Create an information product to satisfy this need. 4. Find technical solution to produce the GIP.
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 22 Conclusion 2: Technology required to satisfy the need of Politicians: - spatio-temporal database - integration of physical and social science data - construction of spatial process models - interoperability
Sept 10, 1998 GIS PlaNET 1998 23 Conclusion 3: Research Issues Semantic integration of data from different sources using models of common processes Assess Data Quality from data through process to decision