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Chapter 24 Medical Laboratory Health Care Science Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 Medical Laboratory Health Care Science Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 24 Medical Laboratory Health Care Science Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3 Chapter 24 2 Objectives Summarize the roles and responsibilities of a phlebotomist, medical laboratory assistant, medical laboratory technician, and medical technologist. List the various places where a medical laboratory worker can be employed.

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 24 3 Objectives (cont.) Define phlebotomy and explain the various methods that can be used to draw blood. Identify various methods used for a drawing blood. Practice aseptic techniques during laboratory procedures. Successfully complete 8 medical laboratory procedures.

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 24 4 Careers in Medical Laboratories 24-1 The Phlebotomy Technician Medical Laboratory Assistant Medical Laboratory Technician Medical Technologist/Clinical Laboratory Scientist

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 24 5 The Phlebotomy Technician Phlebotomy – an incision, or cut, made into a vein to draw blood. The most common method used to obtain blood is called venipuncture, puncturing a vein using a specifically-designed needle with a holder for special tubes.

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 24 6 The Phlebotomy Technician (cont.) Performs capillary punctures that are used to collect small blood samples. May collect urine specimens and throat cultures. Commonly works in hospitals or large clinics; also works in physician offices, laboratories, nursing homes, blood banks, and health departments.

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 24 7 The Phlebotomy Technician (cont.) Job Responsibilities – Properly identify blood samples. This is the most important part of the job. – Explain the procedure to the clients. – Accurately label all samples. – Treat all samples correctly. – Maintain confidentiality. – Obtain the correct specimen in the correct manner. – Transport the specimen in the right manner to the designated location.

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 24 8 Medical Laboratory Assistant (MLA) Often starts as a phlebotomy technician. May work in the lab under the control of a medical technologist. May be directed by a nurse or physician in a physician’s office.

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 24 9 Medical Laboratory Assistant (cont.) Job Responsibilities – Performs many tests to diagnose diseases. – Collects specimens, prepares them for testing, analyzes samples, and reports results. – Performs waived tests.

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Assistant (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – May perform electrocardiograms, calculate and give injections, and perform breathing tests. – Can remove sutures and change wound dressings. – May be trained to perform front office responsibilities and may assist the office manager.

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Assistant (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Collect throat specimens for culture of organisms. – Prepare bacteriological smears. – Stain culture smears with Gram’s stain for use in organism identification.

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Assistant (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Test urine with chemical reagent strips. – Test urine for glucose using copper reduction. – Collect capillary blood samples. – Perform blood glucose and cholesterol tests.

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Assistant (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Identify the client. – Identify the proper procedure for specimen collection. – Collect the specimen properly. – Accurately label the specimen.

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Assistant (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Properly transport the specimen. – Perform lab tests. – Transmit accurate and timely reports to the physician. – Maintain confidentiality.

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) Involved in preparing specimens and running automatic analyzers rather than collecting samples. May be the person in charge in a physician’s office lab.

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Technician (cont.) Job Responsibilities – Perform routine clinical lab tests to help in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. – Perform less complex tests and lab procedures than technologists. – Usually work under the supervision of a medical laboratory technologist or laboratory manager.

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Laboratory Technician (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Operate automated instruments. – Troubleshoot problems that occur with the equipment. – Prepare chemical solutions. – Maintain quality control for the tests being performed. – Keep accurate records.

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Technologist (MT)/ Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CLS) Performs tests from the routine to the most complex. Requires little or no supervision. May be a teacher, supervisor, or researcher.

20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Technologist/ Clinical Laboratory Scientist (cont.) Job Responsibilities – Analyze the chemical content of fluids. – Match blood for transfusions, test for drug levels in the blood, prepare specimens for examination. – Use automated equipment and instruments capable of performing a number of tests simultaneously.

21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Technologist/ Clinical Laboratory Scientist (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Examine and analyze tissues, cells, blood, and other body fluids. – Analyze the chemical content of body fluids. – Prepare blood for transfusion. – Perform drug tests. – Identify fungi, parasites, or bacteria. – Report the sensitivity to antibiotics of identified microorganisms.

22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Technologist/ Clinical Laboratory Scientist (cont.) Job Responsibilities (cont.) – Operate complex precision equipment. – Interpret results to assist physicians in the diagnosis of diseases. – Evaluate test results. – Develop procedures, quality control, and quality assurance. – Maintain the integrity of equipment.

23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Section 24-1 Apply Your Knowledge Which laboratory position requires the least amount of supervision? Answer: Medical Technologist/ Clinical Laboratory Scientist.

24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Medical Office Procedures 24-2 Collecting Specimens Performing Tests on Urine Additional Career Skills

25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Collecting Specimens Practice aseptic technique. Obtain the specimen without causing harm, discomfort, or embarrassment to the client. Give clear, complete instructions to the client regarding the collection method. Collect the specimen in the proper manner and at the correct time.

26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Assemble the correct collection methods, containers, and transport systems. Collect the proper quantity of the specimen to avoid repetition. Ask the client about any allergies or current medications that might affect test results. Label all specimens with required information including the client’s name and date of collection. Establish the legality of a diagnostic test before performing. Collecting Specimens (cont.)

27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Urinalysis is the oldest screening tool for diseases. The urinalysis provides information about: – Carbohydrate metabolism. – Liver and kidney function. – Acid-base balance. – The presence of infection. Performing Tests on Urine

28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Various additional tests are performed by the medical laboratory staff. Blood collection is an invasive procedure and is regulated by state and federal guidelines. When handling blood and other body fluids you should follow strict standard precautions at all times. Additional Career Skills

29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Section 24-2 Apply Your Knowledge What might an elevated cholesterol reading indicate? Answer: Liver malfunction, hypothyroidism, or atherosclerosis.

30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Procedures in Student Text 24APreparing Bacteriological Smears 24BInoculating an Agar Plate 24CStaining Culture Smears with Gram’s Stain 24DPerforming a Rapid Strep Test

31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Procedures in Student Text (cont.) 24E1Assessing Urine for Color and Turbidity 24E2Measuring Specific Gravity Using a Urinometer 24E3Testing Urine with Chemical Reagent Strips 24E4Microscopic Urine Analysis

32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Additional Procedures in Lab Activity Manual LM24-1Performing the Test for Infectious Mononucleosis LM24-2ATesting Urine for Glucose Using Copper Reduction LM24-2BTesting Urine for Protein LM24-2CPerforming a Pregnancy Test LM24-3Collecting a Capillary Blood Sample LM24-4Performing a Hematocrit LM24-5Performing a Hemoglobin Test

33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Additional Procedures in Lab Activity Manual (cont.) LM24-6Making a Blood Smear LM24-7Manual Method for Counting Cells LM24-8Collecting a Venous Blood Sample LM24-9Performing a Butterfly Blood Collection LM24-10Performing an Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test LM24-11Performing a Cholesterol Test LM24-12Determining ABO Group LM24-13Determining Rh Blood Factor


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