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NIST/OLES. Law Enforcement PPE for Use in Violent Situations Alim Fatah, PhD National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Law Enforcements.

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Presentation on theme: "NIST/OLES. Law Enforcement PPE for Use in Violent Situations Alim Fatah, PhD National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Law Enforcements."— Presentation transcript:

1 NIST/OLES

2 Law Enforcement PPE for Use in Violent Situations Alim Fatah, PhD National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Office of Law Enforcements Standards (OLES)

3 NIST/OLES Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) OLES is a program management organization that designs and manages standards-development and research projects on behalf of agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), and others. Within OLES are six program areas: –Weapons and Protective Systems; –Detection, Inspection, and Enforcement Technologies; –Forensic Sciences; –Public Safety Communication Systems; –Critical Incident Technologies; and –Public Safety and Security Technologies. These program areas conduct a vast range of projects related to protective clothing, communication systems, investigative aids, security devices, traffic enforcement equipment, vehicles, firearms and ammunition, detection of concealed weapons and explosives, forensic science, homeland security, and domestic preparedness

4 NIST/OLES Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) Examples of Standards in place: –NIJ – Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor –NIJ – Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor –NIJ – Walk-Through Metal Detectors for Use in Concealed Weapon and Contraband Detection –NIJ – Hand-Held Metal Detectors

5 NIST/OLES Project Goals Define performance standards and testing methods for Law Enforcement PPE used in violent situations (Riot Gear) Develop a suite of standards that can be used for equipment testing certification to ensure it meets minimum performance requirements

6 NIST/OLES Project Description UK suite of standards serves as a model –BS 7971: Protective Clothing for Use in Violent Situations and Training Utilizes UK testing standards Defines performance requirements based on attacker capabilities –Force delivered, location of strike, method of delivery Base these standards on US testing standards and performance criteria –ASTM –OSHA

7 NIST/OLES Section 1: General Requirements Applies to all PPE Physically innocuous –No sharp edges –No rough surfaces –Components can not harm user Chemically safe –No allergens or toxins –Must not degrade to form allergens

8 NIST/OLES Section 1: General Requirements Assessment of ergonomic performance and compatibility –Defines activities performed while wearing PPE Combinations to evaluate compatibility –Example: Evaluation of Personal Defense Shields –Wear the following Shoulder Protector Elbow and forearm protector Gloves Coverall –Do the following activities Standing with arm movements Walking and running Assessment of physical discomfort and psychological irritations

9 NIST/OLES Section 2: Risk Assessment General method of performing a risk assessment –Stage 1: Determine who is responsible »Identify who is supposed to make relevant decisions –Stage 2: Determine what the hazards and risks are –Stage 3: Determine how hazards can be eliminated and the risks can be controlled –Stage 4: Deciding what actions are to be taken –Stage 5: Implementation –Stage 6: Continuous evaluation »Never completed »Establish a timetable for a full re-assessment

10 NIST/OLES Section 2: Risk Assessment Stage 1: Determine what the protective clothing and equipment need to do Stage 2: Collect information about the PPE that is available Stage 3: User trials Stage 4: Establish procedures –Storing –Issuing –Maintaining –Record keeping Stage 5: Introduction of the PPE Stage 6: Continuous evaluation

11 NIST/OLES Section 3: Personal Defense Shields First line of defense that prevents or reduces the risk of injury from commonly faced hazards –Metal bars –Timbers –Baseball bats –Axes –Spikes and knives –Bricks, bottles other lofted weapons –Gasoline bombs Can also serve as a means of restraining an individual

12 NIST/OLES Physical Inspection and Assessment of Surface Condition Sample Physical requirements –All materials, fixings, fasteners and surfaces must be free of sharp edges and rough surfaces –The radius of curvature for all edges must be greater than in (1.5 mm) –The maximum height of any step is in (6 mm) –The maximum height of any projection consisting of a number of steps is 0.4 in (10 mm) Shield Blade Bolt Head Washer r1r1 Lock Nut Strike Face < 240 mil < 400 mil r2r2 Washer

13 NIST/OLES Shield Flame Resistance and Flame Preconditioning Shield is covered with flammable liquid Burn for 25 sec Pass / fail criteria –No drips due to melting –No excessive warping This is done prior to all impact testing

14 NIST/OLES Shield Blunt impact test Large, blunt striker –mass = 15 lb –drop height = 6.5 ft Pass / fail criteria –No cracking of shield blade –No fragments on the splinter sheet

15 NIST/OLES Shield Impact Deformation Test ASTM F736 Rounded tip striker –Mass = lbs –Drop height = 3.3 ft Pass / fail criteria –Maximum deformation < 1in –No fragmentation

16 NIST/OLES Shield blade cut resistance Impactor –Simulate machete striking top edge of shield –30° Blade –Mass = 11 lbs –Drop height = 6.7 ft Pass / fail criteria –No cut or crack can extend more than 2 in from top edge of shield

17 NIST/OLES Section 4: Limb Protectors Shoulder Upper arm Elbow and forearm Thigh Knee and shin

18 NIST/OLES Limb Protectors Zones of Protection Define protection zone as a function of a control dimension Example: Shin protector –Length = 25% users height

19 NIST/OLES Limb Protectors Impact Tests Impactor –5.5 lbs –Drop height Determined by designated protection level of protector 1 ft – 4 ft Pass fail criteria –Maximum peak transmitted force –Differs according to item being tested

20 NIST/OLES Limb Protectors Blade Impact Tests Striker –Simulate skipped tile –Mass = 5.5 lb (2.5 kg) –Drop height 8 – 48 in depending on protector being tested. Pass/fail criteria –Maximum transmitted force –No cuts longer than inch through all layers

21 NIST/OLES Section 5: Footwear Standard footwear must protect from slipping and electrical hazards Footwear for use in situations where violence is expected must meet relevant ASTM requirements –ASTM F 2412 Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection –ASTM F 2413 Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Foot Protection

22 NIST/OLES Footwear: ASTM Requirements Required of all protective footwear –Toe impact resistance 50 ft * lbs force –Compression resistance 50 ft*lbs force

23 NIST/OLES Additional requirements Abrasion resistant non- leather outsoles –ASTM D 1630 –NFPA Abrasion index > 100 Cracking resistance of soles under flexing –ASTM D 1052 –< in crack growth after 30,000 flexes Resistance of soles to fuel oils –ASTM D 471 Slip resistance of outsoles –ASTM F 609 – 05 Tear resistance of outsoles –ASTM D 624

24 NIST/OLES Additional Requirements (Cont) Resistance of sole to hot contact –Heating element is brought into contact with sole 572 °F –Pass / fail criteria No melting or cracking in polymeric soles

25 NIST/OLES Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection Abrasion resistance –ASTM D4966 (Martindale Abrasion) –No breakthrough after 500 cycles at 1.3 psi Blade cut resistance –ASTM F 1790 Must be 2.5 X as resistant to cuts as canvas Tearing resistance –ASTM D 2261 (Tongue rip procedure) Must resist tearing at lbf

26 NIST/OLES Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection Puncture resistance –ASTM F 1342 –Must not be penetrated with 13.5 lbf applied to probe

27 NIST/OLES Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection Dexterity test –ASTM F 2010 – 00 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Glove Effects on Wearer Hand Dexterity Using a Modified Pegboard Test Test of thermal protection –ISO 17493: Clothing and equipment for protection against heat - Test method for convective heat resistance using a hot air circulating oven –Must not allow a second degree burn according to evaluation criteria described in ASTM F 1060 Standard Test Method for Thermal Protective Performance of Materials for Protective Clothing for Hot Surface Contact

28 NIST/OLES Section 6: Gloves for mechanical chemical and thermal protection Impact resistance –Striker Mass = 5.5 lbs Drop height = 8 in –Pass / fail criteria No sharp edges created on glove Maximum peak transmitted force = 900 lbf

29 NIST/OLES Section 7: Slash resistant gloves Must meet similar requirements as other gloves for –Abrasion resistance –Tear resistance –Puncture resistance –Dexterity Blade cut resistance –20 X as resistant as canvas material

30 NIST/OLES Section 8: Blunt trauma body protectors Torso protectors –Equestrian Must comply with ASTM F 1937 –Impact tests –Defines zones of protection –Pedestrian Must comply with ASTM F 1937 with different zones of protection

31 NIST/OLES Abdomen and Genital Protectors Specifies –Zones of protection –Impact tests Brick edge impactor Ball impactor –Restraint tests Defines maximum displacement under load and after load is withdrawn

32 NIST/OLES Sections under development Training suits and equipment Coveralls


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