6 NEEDS – Evolving Consumer Data Demands 1.New wireless devices – Smartphones, Tablets, Connected Cars, Smart Homes. 63% of all Canadian Mobile Phone Users own a Smartphone (Source - CWTA) 2.Ubiquitous coverage - consumers expect devices to work everywhere & all the time. Fifty per cent of wireless data is consumed at home. 3.Exploding wireless ecosystem – Billions of $$ being spent on wireless consumers & business segment (mHealth, Security, etc). 900 per cent growth of data consumption over the next five years (people and devices).
7 IMPACT – Enhanced Networks Designs Required New 4G LTE Network Build-outs required by existing carriers to meet growing data coverage and quality demands: LTE data service is highly sensitive to signal levels lost from trees and walls (i.e. you can make a call but your Internet/Data connection does not work). This limitation requires an increased number of low power sites closer to the actual end users in residential areas. New wireless provider networks offering choices: Fixed Wireless Internet Providers increasing rural coverage areas; New wireless entrants require extensive market build-outs to provide equivalent coverage and serve more clients; Small cable companies also investing in wireless as 4 th service New infrastructure providers: Tower Companies such as SBA are investing in multi-tenant tower sites to foster site sharing and reduce infrastructure duplication in communities across Canada.
8 RESULT – Different Network Infrastructure Needs With the Evolving Consumer Consumption Demands and the resulting Enhanced Network Designs, tower locations of the past (rural or industrial areas) are no longer adequate. Today’s wireless networks require: 1.sites to be lower and closer together (2-3 km ft); 2.sites in close proximity to end users (residential areas); 3.reduced broadcast power output due to density of sites; 4.shared infrastructure to reduce cost; 5.high capacity backhaul (microwave or fiber) to support data usage; 6.continued cooperation from all levels of government to assist with Different Network Infrastructure needs.
9 10% Penetration Mobile voice coverage only 50% Penetration Mobile/In-Home voice coverage only 80%+ Penetration Ubiquitous voice & data coverage The Evolution of Shrinking Cell Site Densities
10 Shrinking Cell Site Densities & Impact on RF Exposure World Health Organization Published Report RF exposures from base stations and wireless technologies in publicly accessible areas (including schools and hospitals) are normally thousands of times below international standards. RF exposures from base stations range from 0.002% to 2% of the levels of international exposure guidelines. This is lower or comparable to RF exposures from radio or television broadcast transmitters At similar RF exposure levels, the body absorbs up to five times more of the signal from FM radio and television than from base stations ( Greatest exposure risks to an individual is from personal use of cellular devices (not base station antennas) Cellular device power levels are highest when signal is weakest (farthest distance from a base station antenna)
11 Shrinking cell site densities reduce health risks by: Reducing transmission power requirements for cellular devices due to reduced distance base station antenna Reduced transmission power required for cellular base station (to reach a handset) RF energy to which the public are exposed from cellular base stations (located 140 feet above ground on the tower) is typically less than one- one thousandth (1/1000th) the strength of that to which an individual is exposed to from holding a handset to the ear. Considering the very low exposure levels and research results collected to date, there is no convincing scientific evidence that the weak RF signals from base stations and wireless networks cause adverse health effects. Shrinking Cell Site Densities & Impact on RF Exposure
12 Diagram from Industry Canada's web site depicting the safe/unsafe RF exposure locations associated with a suburban communications tower (next to the antenna at the top of the tower is considered unsafe). (http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt- gst.nsf/eng/sf08792.html#s5) Shrinking Cell Site Densities & Impact on RF Exposure
13 RF Exposure – Potential Health Effects The WHO ( World Health Organization ) recently defined cell phone USAGE as an IARC ( International Agency for Research on Cancer ) Group 2B item. Items listed in this group are defined as "Possibly carcinogenic to humans" showing there is some evidence that it can cause cancer in humans but at present it is far from conclusive. Other items included in the Group 2B list include: Carpentry and joinery Coffee (linked to urinary bladder cancer) Dry cleaning (occupational exposures in) Firefighter (occupational exposure as a) Pickled vegetables (traditional in Asia) Progestogen-only contraceptives Surgical implants and other foreign bodies Talc-based body powder Textile manufacturing industry Welding fumes
14 RF Exposure – Sources of Electro-Magnetic Frequency POWER FREQUENCY (Extremely low frequency [ELF] EMF) Home/Work Appliances (magnetic induction stovetop, microwave oven, computers, washer/dryer, TV, radio, etc). Plasma TVs apparently have some adverse bioeffects on some people that are similar to exposures to wireless devices. Lighting (fluorescent primarily). Computers and separate hard drives. Printers. Copiers/faxes. Being alongside someone else’s computer (even thru a wall). Being near an electrical main panel or subpanel or switchgear room. Think next to, above or below an electrical room. Working near large electrical systems (large electric motors, generators, electric cables). Working with power saws, drills, welding, any induction motor (variable speed motor like a sewing machine) Home grid systems (RF devices that use electrical wiring of home). Hybrid cars (their EMF levels vary widely, so check before buying). Public spaces Power lines, transmission lines, transformers, pad-mounted ground transformers (big green boxes labeled “High Voltage” that sit outside buildings). Electric transportation systems (trains) and light-rail. Electric and hybrid cars (exposures vary widely). RADIOFREQUENCY EMF (wireless technologies) Home/Work Cellular phone handsets Cordless phones/base stations, pagers, Bluetooth headsets. Wireless computers, routers networks, laptops, PDA’s, Handheld Electronic games (most include WiFi) Wireless baby monitors. Wireless Security Systems Public spaces Broadcast towers (AM, FM, television towers). Radar. Doppler radars for weather are tremendously strong RF sources – intermittent, sweeping exposure at very high peak power). Airports, military bases. Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) systems. (Security Gates in stores are the flat white panels near the doors. These panels have some of the strongest known exposures in daily life. They can detect shoplifters who carry RF-tagged articles out of a store. Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) and metal detector systems (airports, stores, libraries and hospitals).
15 Life and Safety – e-911 and Wireless Services According to the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association (CWTA), 28.5 million Canadians subscribe to some form of wireless telephone service. 25 per cent of Canadian homes have no land lines, and about 50 per cent of all (emergency) 911 calls are wireless. Each year there are over 6 million e-911 calls made from a mobile device. If the caller’s phone has a built-in GPS unit, this exact latitudinal and longitudinal data can be sent to the call centre. If not, the approximate location of the caller can be obtained by triangulating their signal strength with respect to the nearest receiving tower.
16 The SBA Role – Enabling Shared Infrastructure SBA is a wireless infrastructure company – our business is built on tower sharing and co-location, as well as operating in line with all applicable policies and consultation processes. SBA Canada proactively promotes the SBA portfolio of sites to ALL Wireless Service Providers nationally for planning networks and new antenna site locations As an independent provider of wireless infrastructure, SBA will: ensure that communications towers and sites are not unnecessarily duplicated offer an attractive value proposition for wireless operators and broadcasters maintain municipal Land Use Authority and Industry Canada liaisons as appropriate to smooth the tower siting process
17 SBA Canada Primary Contacts SBA Canada 468, rue Saint-Jean, bureau 100 Montréal (Québec) H2Y 2S1 Edward Hachey, Vice President - Canada