Presentation on theme: "Technical Report Writing. Technical Report Writing Day 2 Objectives: Introduction Literature review Objectives of the report (Note: the words objectives,"— Presentation transcript:
Technical Report Writing Day 2 Objectives: Introduction Literature review Objectives of the report (Note: the words objectives, aims and purpose are synonyms) Body
Introduction-length Your introduction – 250 to 500 words
The introduction includes the background to the topic of your report (this is to set your work in its broad context) a clear statement of the objective of the report. technical background necessary to understand the report; e.g. theory or assumptions
Background information How to write the background information Select factual information pertaining to the subject. Chronology of how product problem evolved to the current situation Write in an objective manner.
What questions should introduction answer? What is the problem? Why is it interesting and important? Why is it challenging? (E.g., why do conventional approaches fail?) Why hasn't it been solved before? (Or, what's wrong with previous proposed solutions? How does mine differ?) What are the key components of my approach
Sample Introduction – focus on the points not the length (background info) The Avaya MDW 9012 wireless pocket phone is a light weight, pocket sized pocket phone. It lets you make, receive announce and transfer call while having the freedom to move around freely. (problem) This guide will cover ( 1.) understanding the handset display icons (2.) Using the handset for making calls (3.) changing the setting. This guide will not cover the conference call using the hold button. (solution) To use this guide the front desk staff should be familiar with the basics of using multi-line phones and transferring calls.
Activity: Select the best introduction OPTION A: The objective of this project is to introduce our group's two conceptual designs. We have included the following sketches for each car: 3 dimensional view, elevation, plan, front, rear and interior view. Also, we have included a discussion of how the designs meet the criteria given in the project outline. The cars could be suitable for short trips in busy areas.
Activity: Select the best introduction OPTION B: With the rise in global warming and increasing pollution levels, it is becoming essential to find a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine petrol powered car. The aim of this project was to create two designs for a fuel cell powered car, the main criteria being environmental friendliness in terms of both emissions and materials. This report presents the designs for two such cars, each of which includes the following components: engine, fuel, wheels, accessories, safety features and materials. Car A is aimed at the upper end of the market, while Car B is a mid-range vehicle suitable for family use. A description of the design and an analysis of operational efficiency for each car are followed by a comparison of the two designs. Finally, the most cost efficient design is recommended.
Activity Read the report and write the introduction
Grammar: Avoiding Verbosity The fact of using more words than needed is called verbosity. While writing the introduction make sure that your sentences do not have unnecessary words.
Activity: Avoiding verbosity (avoid wordiness) 1. The theme of this year’s summit is ‘From Essential Elements to Effective Practice,’ and the conference will include a variety of interactive sessions. 2. John Smith runs the DJ Project, an after-school program in San Francisco for students struggling in school. He uses hip-hop to connect with the students. 3. It’s rather annoying that you can’t turn off the various sounds that play when you use the zoom and other functions.
Activity: Literature Review What to include in literature review?
Literature Review In your literature review, you show how your research builds on prior knowledge by presenting and evaluating what is already known about your research problem.
Why conduct a literature review? Helping the researcher understand the existing body of knowledge Providing a solid theoretical foundation for the proposed study Substantiating the presence of the research problem Justifying the proposed study as one that contributes something new. Framing the valid research methodologies, approach, goals, and research questions.
Functions of literature review To justify your choice of research question, theoretical or conceptual framework, and method; To establish the importance of the topic; To provide background information needed to understand the study;
Functions of Literature Review To show readers you are familiar with significant and/or up-to-date research relevant to the topic; To establish your study as one link in a chain of research that is developing knowledge in your field.
Goal of introduction and literature review The goal of the introduction and literature review is to demonstrate the logical continuity between previous and present work. The reader should understand why the problem was researched and why the study represents a contribution to existing knowledge
Activity: Write a literature review From the report provided, write a literature review in your own words. Include the following: Background of the research problem Findings of the work Establishing your point
Method The method section includes separate descriptions of the sample, the materials and the procedures. Describe your sample with sufficient detail so that it is clear what population(s) the samples represents. Outline and document clearly why and how the sample was formed in your study.
Method You should also describe your instruments, including all surveys, tests, questionnaires, interview forms, and other tools used to provide data. Make sure you provide or mention the reliability and validity on data collection.
Grammar: Verbs Verbs to use for the background information: Use appropriate tenses, depending on the situation you are describing: Eg: how a machine operates or describing an; existing situation –Present Tense; detailing history –Past Tense
Activity: Verbs Lars: Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for? Tony: We (wait) ________ for the new Stars Wars movie. In fact, we (wait) _______ here for more than five hours. Lars: Five hours? When did you arrive? Tony: We (get)_____ here at 6:00 o'clock this morning. More than forty people (stand, already)_______ here waiting for tickets when we arrived.
Activity: Verbs Lars: When did you buy your tickets? Tony: I (buy) _____ hem last week by phone. I (know)_____ tickets would be hard to get because I (see) _____ a news interview with a group of people standing in line to get tickets. They (wait) ______ in line for almost a month to buy tickets for the first showing. Lars: I don't believe that!
Objective/purpose/aim of the report What do you understand by the term objective/purpose/ aim?
Objectives of the report The objective is the starting point for the whole investigation. The purpose/aim/objective is what the writer proposes to write about and what he hopes to achieve through the writing.
Purpose/objective/aim Example: This article will examine the knowledge and attitudes of consumers who buy branded products. The purpose of the article is to examine….
Purpose/objective/aim Another example: Eg: This paper discusses the underlying problems associated with Process A and aims to find a viable solution to the situation.
Example of objectives in a report 1. To research optimum temperature and humidity for the working environment; 2. To measure current temperature and humidity in Factory D. 3. To determine whether optimizing conditions will result in enhanced Productivity.
Objectives in a report Ways to write the objectives: 1. The objective of the investigation was to… 2. The experiment was carried out in order to investigate… 3. The goal of this study was to… 4. In this study we investigated whether…
Verbs used for objectives To inform To explain To present To highlight To summarize To give an account of To give an overview of To direct the readers attention to
Activity: Objective of a report From the handouts provided, write the objectives of the report in your own words.
Body of the report This is main part of the report, where you present your work. The introduction and conclusions act as a frame for the body only: therefore all the details of your work must be included here in the appropriate section. You will need to put some thought into the ordering of the sections; the presentation of information should flow logically so that the reader can follow the development of your project. It is also essential that you choose concise but informative headings and subheadings so that the reader knows exactly what type of information to expect in each section.
Body of the report Presents the information from your research, both real world and theoretical Organizes information logically under appropriate headings Conveys information in the most effective way for communication: uses figures and tables can use bulleted or numbered lists can use formatting to break up large slabs of text
Headings Headings are of four kinds: Informative headings Uninformative headings Consistent headings Inconsistent headings
Headings Informative headings Must ne specific and content focused. They must give some information about the work. Example are: Overview of the organization Communication in the organization Groups in the organization Management style and methods
Headings Uninformative headings: Some headings do not give clear idea of what is written in the body paragraphs. Example are: The organization The management The groups
Headings Consistent headings: This is the most commonly used format for section headings in an informational report. Example: Company structure Communication channels Group participation Development of effective management skills
Headings Inconsistent headings: When we say inconsistent it means that the headings have no common grammatical forms. That is why they are inconsistent. Example: The company structure ( Noun phrase) Do the communication channels work? ( Question) Participation in groups (Gerund phrase)
Which of the following section headings are grammatically consistent? Activity: Which headings are grammatically consistent? Option 1: Car A The Materials we selected Emissions How the safety features Work What Accessories are included? Option B: Car A Materials selection Emissions Safety features Accessories Option C: Car A The Materials Selected Emissions Safety features of the car Accessories included
Answer Option 2 is the right answer. Reason : There are no unnecessary use of words, the points are short and focused. Words like “the” and question words like what and how are not there.
Common grammatical errors Use the active voice to make your writing more direct and vigorous. Avoid big words.
Activity: Change from passive to active 1. Control of the bearing-oil supply is provided by the Shutoff valve. 2. Leaking of the seals is prevented by the use of O- rings. 3. Fuel-cost savings were realized through the installation of thermal insulation.
Answers Shutoff valves control the bearing-oil supply. O-rings keep the seals from leaking. The installation of thermal insulation cut fuel cost.
Activity: Avoid big words Change the big words into simple words: Terminate: _________________ Utilize : ________________ Incombustible: ________________ Substantiate: ________________ Eliminate: _________________
Answer: Avoid big words 1. End 2. Use 3. Fireproof 4. Prove 5. Get rid of
Figures, tables and equations Usually only these two categories are used while writing reports anything other than tables (maps, charts, diagrams, drawings, graphs) is called a figure. Figures and tables should be placed as close as possible to the point at which they are referred to in the text
Figures, tables and equations Give all figures and tables a number and title. Refer to each figure and table in the text of the report. The title of a table goes above the table The title of a figure goes below the figure.
Figures, tables and equations Give all figures and tables a number and title. Example : Table 1 Existing communication channels Write the tale number first followed by the title of the table.
Figures, tables and equations Refer to each figure and table in the text of the report. Example: The communication channels in the organization are shown in Table 1. The title first and the table number later.
Figures, tables and equations The title of the table goes above the table: Table 1 Turning volume of pedal cycle (1) (2)(3)(4)(5)(6) 8:00 - 8:15am 001010 8:15 - 8:30am 001100 8:30 - 8:45am 003100 8:45 - 9:00am 002310 Total Volume 007520
Figures, tables and equations Example of a figure: Figure 1: Phase shift keying modulation
Figures, tables and equations Equations: The conventional style for presenting equations is as follows: Centre the equation on the page Place the equation number in round brackets at the right-hand margin In the text of your report, refer to the equations as either Eq. (1) or equation (1). Use whichever format you choose consistently throughout your report.
Figures, tables and equations Equations: The relationship of the speed of propagation and the volumetric tissue fraction is given by: