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Lecture 3 ref: Chapter 6 E-Supply Chains, Collaborative Commerce, And Corporate Portals 1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Learning Objectives 1. Define the e-supply chain and describe its characteristics and components. 2. List solutions provided by e-commerce (EC) for supply chain problems. 3. Describe RFID supply chain applications. 4. Define c-commerce and list the major types. 6-2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Learning Objectives 6. Describe collaborative planning and collaboration, planning, forecasting, and replenishing (CPFR) 7. Understand corporate portals and their types and roles. 8. Describe e-collaboration tools such as workflow software and groupware. 9. Describe Collaboration 2.0 technology and tools. 6-3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains supply chain (non electronic) The flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers e-supply chain A supply chain that is managed electronically, usually with Web technologies 6-4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
E-Supply Chains 5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6-6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains SUPPLY CHAIN PARTS 1. Upstream supply chain the activities of a company with their supplier(assemblers, manufacturers, or service providers). the major activity is procurement. procurement The process made up of a range of activities by which an organization obtains or gains access to the resources (materials, skills, capabilities, facilities) they require to undertake their core business activities 6-7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains 2. Internal supply chain and value chain all in house processes used in transforming the inputs received from the suppliers into organization’s outputs. Value chain : transform goods and services obtained from suppliers into goods and services of value to customers. Combine customers (B2C) & suppliers(b2b) 3. Downstream supply chain all the activities involved in delivering the products to the final customers ( distribution, warehousing, transportation) 6-8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains supply chain management (SCM) A complex process that requires the coordination of many activities so that the shipment of goods and services from supplier right through to customer is done efficiently and effectively for all parties concerned. SCM aims to: 1. minimize inventory levels, 2. optimize production 3. increase throughput 4. decrease manufacturing time 5. optimize logistics and distribution 6. streamline order fulfillment 7. reduce the costs associated with these activities 6-9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains e-supply chain management (e-SCM) The collaborative use of technology to improve the operations of supply chain activities as well as the management of supply chains – information visibility The process of sharing critical data required to manage the flow of products, services, and information in real time between suppliers and customers 6-10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains Activities e-SCM Supply Chain Replenishment Synchronizing supply and demand information across the enterprise. e-procurement The use of Web-based technology to support the key procurement processes, including requisitioning, sourcing, contracting, ordering, and payment. E-procurement supports the purchase of both direct and indirect materials and employs several Web-based functions such as online catalogs, contracts, purchase orders, and shipping notices Online purchase order, Advanced shipping notifications, online catalogs 6-11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains Supply Chain Monitoring and Control Using RFID Inventory Management Using Wireless Devices using bar-code technologies and wireless technologies collaborative planning A business practice that combines the business knowledge and forecasts of multiple players along a supply chain to improve the planning and fulfillment of customer demand 6-12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains Collaborative Design and Product Development use of product design and development techniques across multiple companies to improve product launch success and reduce time-to-market. E-Logistics the use of web-based technologies to support the material acquisition, warehousing, and transportation processes Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains Infrastructure for e-SCM 1. Electronic data interchange (EDI) 2. Extranets 3. Intranets 4. Corporate Portal 5. Workflow system and tools 6. Groupware and other collaborative tools 7. Identification and tracking tools 6-14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.1 E-Supply Chains success factors of e-supply chain management – the ability to see collaboration as an asset – information visibility – speed – quality – customer service – tight integration 6-15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.2 Supply Chain problems and solutions typical problems along the supply chain – missed deliveries – improper inventories – quality problems 6-16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Main reason for supply chain-related problems lack of communication and trust EC solutions to supply chain problems Solutions come in the areas of visibility, order taking, order fulfillment, electronic payment, inventory planning and collaborative commerce Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.2 Supply Chain problems and solutions
6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in Supply Chain Management radio frequency identification (RFID) Tags that can be attached to or embedded in objects, animals, or humans and use radio waves to communicate with a reader for the purpose of uniquely identifying the object or transmitting data and/or storing information about the object 6-18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in Supply Chain Management 6-19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in Supply Chain Management 6-20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
how RFID can be used to improve supply chains? RFID tags can be attached to products to more carefully monitor their location for inventory purposes. Working of RFID in a supplier-retailer system Suppliers attach RFID tags so retailers can track shipment and receiving Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in Supply Chain Management
The differences between active and passive RFID tags. Active tags include an internal power supply while passive tags do not. Active tags can be read at distances of one hundred feet or more while passive tag can be read only at very short distances Active tag is typically more expensive than passive tag 6-22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in Supply Chain Management
LIMITATIONS AND CONCERNS OF RFID Cost too high Interference and accuracy Limited range in passive RFID Environment restrictions on usage (ex. underwater) Privacy 6-23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in Supply Chain Management
6.5 Collaborative Planning, CPFR, APS, and PLM collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR) Project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate in their planning and demand forecasting to optimize flow of materials along the supply chain 6-24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems Programs that use algorithms to identify optimal solutions to complex planning problems that are bound by constraints product lifecycle management (PLM) Business strategy that enables manufacturers to control and share product related data as part of product design and development efforts 6-26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.5 Collaborative Planning, CPFR, APS, and PLM
6-27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.7 Corporate (Enterprise) Portals corporate (enterprise) portal A gateway for entering a corporate Web site, enabling communication, collaboration, and access to company information 6-28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.7 Corporate (Enterprise) Portals TYPES OF GENERIC CORPORATE PORTALS Portals for Suppliers and Other Partners Customer Portals Employee Portals Executive and Supervisor Portals mobile portals Portals accessible via mobile devices, especially cell phones and PDAs 6-30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Corporate (Enterprise) Portals The Functionalities of Portals information portals Portals that store data and enable users to navigate and query the data collaborative portals Portals that allow collaboration 6-31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Corporate (Enterprise) Portals CORPORATE PORTAL APPLICATIONS Knowledge bases and learning tools, business process support, customer-facing sales, collaboration and project support, data access, and security applications. Developing Portals what is the purpose and content of the portal 6-32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Corporate (Enterprise) Portals the benefits of corporate portals. simple access/navigation improved access to information usability of common applications the ability to use platform independent applications Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6-34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools workflow The movement of information as it flows through the sequence of steps that make up an organization’s work procedures workflow systems Business process automation tools that place system controls in the hands of user departments to automate information processing tasks workflow management The automation of workflows, so that documents, information, and tasks are passed from one participant to the next in the steps of an organization’s business process 6-35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
COLLABORATION AND GROUPWARE: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS – groupware Software products that support groups of people who share common tasks or goals and collaborate on their accomplishment – Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Communication 6-36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
– virtual team A group of employees using information and communications technologies to collaborate from different work bases Mass Collaboration a form of collective action that occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single project, often modular in its nature 6-38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEMS: FACE-TO-FACE SUPPORT AND VIRTUAL MEETINGS – virtual meetings Online meetings whose members are in different locations, even in different countries – group decision support system (GDSS) An interactive computer-based system that facilitates the solution of semistructured and unstructured problems by a group of decision makers 6-39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
REAL-TIME COLLABORATION TOOLS FOR VIRTUAL MEETINGS screen-sharing software Software that enables group members, even in different locations, to work on the same document, which is shown on the PC screen of each participant Sharing Documents and Workspaces Ex. Google doc 6-40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools ELECTRONIC TELECONFERENCING teleconferencing The use of electronic communication that allows two or more people at different locations to have a simultaneous conference video teleconference Virtual meeting in which participants in one location can see participants at other locations on a large screen or a desktop computer 6-41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
– data conferencing Virtual meeting in which geographically dispersed groups work on documents together and exchange computer files during videoconferences – Web Conferencing E.g. e-classrooms, web simenar unified communication (UC) Simplification of all forms of communication in the enterprise – Web Collaboration – Web Suites e.g. polycom.com 6-42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
Collaboration 2.0 The technology and tools used for collaboration in the Web 2.0 world and in Enterprise 2.0 that are in sync with social networking and user- generated content 6-43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
The major technologies used in Collaboration 2.0: collaborative workspace An interconnected environment in which all the participants in dispersed locations can access and interact with each other just as inside a single entity benefits : fast and flexible access to information cost saving on HW and SW better information security 6-44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
instant messaging Technologies that create the possibility of realtime text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet/intranet presence information Status indicator that conveys ability and willingness of a potential communication partner 6-45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
Mobile Collaboration in the Web 2.0 Environment Mobile social networking service Mobile handset (skype) – mobile instant messaging Messaging service that transposes the desktop messaging experience to the usage scenario of being on the move – Mobile Unified Communication 6-46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
voice-over-IP (VoIP) Communication systems that transmit voice calls over Internet Protocol–based networks Blogs, Wikis, Virtual Worlds, Forums, and Other Tools 6-47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.8 Collaboration-Enabling Environments And Tools
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