8What are they?Small size, light weight, easily fitting in palm and pocketDisplay screen with touch input and small virtual key boardAlso known as portable handheld device or handheld device (e.g. Smartphone, PDAs etc.)
9How they are different from traditional computation? Mainframe computer: Large, expensive, capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. Single mainframe can replace dozens or even hundreds of smaller serversMinicomputer: Power of minicomputers lie between a PC and a mainframe. Supports 4 to 200 users simultaneously.PC: PC contains a central processing unit (CPU) on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory, a bus system and I/O ports. Processing power is less than a Minicomputer.Mobile device: Less functionality than a PC and may require specific operating system software to operate.A smartphone today has more computation power than a mainframe when you were born
10Cloud computing and Mobile devices Cloud computing: Delivering of computing as a service rather than a product to mobile devices or PCsCloud computing provides computation, software applications, data access, data management and storage resources without requiring cloud users to know the location and other details of the computing infrastructureMobile devices do not require high computing power and memoryApplications: E-Commerce, learning and healthcareSource:
11Social media and Mobile devices Keeping touch with everyone (Facebook, Google+)Sharing multimedia content (photos, videos, web links, locations etc)Providing information based on user profile and likes (e.g. sports, games)Recommending an insurance policy based on user profileGenerating revenues based on pay per click AdsLocation based services (e.g. Geo-tagging)Source:
12What else? Always connected (e.g. SMS, MMS, instant messaging etc.) Web browsingAudio and videoRegular updates (e.g. status updates, new applications, news feed, weather, sports, live TV etc.)GPS for location based services (e.g. finding a restaurant near you) and get regular map updatesGamesTake a picture and share it with others instantly, video chat and video recordingRemotely controlling any electronic device such as PC, home appliances, car etc.
13Smartphone – HistoryIBM Simon was the first smartphone designed in 1992 and released to public in 1993.Then Nokia released its smartphone ‘Nokia 9000’ in 1996 in collaboration with Hewlett-Packard .In 2001 Palm introduced ’Kyocera 6035’ a Palm OS based smartphone that is widely used in US.In 2002 RIM introduced BlackBerry smartphones with its own mobile OS ‘BlackBerry OS’.Then in 2007 Apple’s first iPhone is released to public which is very much successful till now with its latest product ‘iPhone 4S’. iOS is used in many Apple’s devices e.g., iPhone, iTouch, iPad, Macintosh etc.In 2008, Google released an open source mobile OS by the name ‘Android’ which is the only competitor for Apple’s iOS. Android is used by different mobile device manufacturers in their smartphones e.g., Samsung, Sony, HTC, Motorola etc.In 2009, Samsung released smartphones with its own OS by the name ‘Bada’.
14Smartphone – Market information Smartphone market is such an emerging market that every company is trying hard to introduce new phones every now and then to be in competition.In US as of December 2011, Android phones lead the market share with 47% followed by Apple’s phones with a share of 30% and then RIM’s phones have a share of 16%.If we compare the manufacturers of smartphones, then on December 2011 Samsung leads the market with 25% followed by LG at 20% and then Motorola and Apple at 13% each.These trends will continue in 2012 also.
15Architecture differences between PC and Wireless Mobile devices.
16Key Architectural Issues for Mobile Devices Mobile applications are inherently different from desktop applications. The physical architecture of the systems is also different. Because the requirements of mobile workers may conflict with the available technology—particularly with regards to the availability of high-speed, continuous wireless connectivity—we may need to make significant trade-offs between the functionality that users request and the functionality that we can deliver.
17Key Differences- 1Insufficient bandwidth: Mobile Internet access is generally slower than direct cable connections, using technologies such as GPRS and EDGE, HSDPA and HSUPA 3G networks. These networks are usually available within range of commercial cell phone towers. Higher speed wireless LANs are inexpensive but they have very limited range.Security standards: A user working on a mobile is dependent on public networks or VPN. Security is a major concern while concerning the mobile computing standards on the fleet. One can easily attack the VPN through a huge number of networks interconnected through the line.Power consumption: When a power outlet or portable generator is not available, mobile computers must rely entirely on battery power. Combined with the compact size of many mobile devices, this often means usage of unusually expensive batteries to obtain the necessary battery life.Transmission interferences: Weather, terrain, and the range from the nearest signal point can all interfere with signal reception. Reception in tunnels, some buildings, and rural areas is often poor.Source:
18Key Differences- 2Human interface with device: Screens and keyboards tend to be small, which may make them hard to use. Alternate input methods such as speech or handwriting recognition require training.Font specific: A font must be installed on a mobile device in order to use it. A computer can store hundreds of them because storage is no big problem. A mobile device has very little storage compared to a pc and must have a very limited number of fonts. A PC font is probably converted if it is not installed on a mobile device. Source:
20Cellular System Architecture Each cell is served by a Base Terminal Station (BTS).Each BTS is connected to a Mobile Switching Center (MTSO) through fixed links.Each MTSO is connected to other MTSOs and PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).MTSOHLRVLRTo otherMTSOsPSTNSource:
21Wireless Telephone Technology Evolution The 2nd Generation (2G) Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991.Benefits over their predecessors:The phone conversations were digitally encrypted.2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels.2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.Source:
22Wireless Telephone Technology Evolution The 3rd Generation (3G) 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services.Its main services include:Wide-area wireless voice telephone.Mobile Internet access.Video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.Source:
23Wireless Telephone Technology Evolution The 4th Generation (4G) 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards.A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access, for example to laptop computer wireless modems, smart phones, and other mobile devices. Facilities also include IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, and other streamed multimedia that may be provided to users.Source:
24Wi-MAX and LTE Architectures 3GPP Long Term Evolution, also known as LTE, is used for high-speed data for mobile phones and other communication ports. The LTE system consists of two networks:E-UTRANEvolved Packet Core (EPC).Both of them result in a system with high simplicity including increased scalability and efficiency, and a design optimized to support IP-based services.WiMAX a short name for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access can be referred to as a technology for wirelessly delivering high-speed Internet service to large specific areas. The previous WiMAX revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s and the latest revision in 2011 has provided us with 1 Gbit/s bit rate for fixed devices and ports. It is a part of the 4G, of wireless communication technology.Source:
25Spectrum Allocation Planned Technology Frequency Range (MHz) GSM, IS-95 (CDMA), 3G1850–1910 and 1930–19903G, 4G, MediaFlo, DVB-H3G, 4G1710–1755 and 2110–21554G2496–2690Source:
26International Telecommunication Unit (ITU) ITU sets standards for the cellular communication through out the world.IMT-Advanced provides a global platform on which to build the next generations of mobile services globally. It includes:Fast data accessunified messaging and broadband multimedia - in the form of exciting new interactive services.Source:
27Device Architecture Small device, generally fits into palm and pocket Weight: Ranges from 80 grams to less than 2 poundsScreen: Touch screen. Ranges from 3 inches(Sony Ericsson Xperia mini) to 5.3 inches( Galaxy Note)Memory: MicroSD, up to ranges 64 GB, RAM and ROM.Battery: ranges from 1000 mA to 2500 mA depending on processorProcessor: designed according to battery power. 1.2 GHz processors are already in the market. Quad core processor expected to come in the next quarter.Camera: primary or back camera, secondary or front camera. Primary camera ranges from VGA to 41 megapixels (Nokia Pureview)SIM: Micro SIM or Macro SIM.Microphone and speakers.Sensors (touch sensors, accelerometer, proximity sensor, ambient light sensor)FM radio (Optional)GPS receiver and GPUWi-Fi and Bluetooth Antennae.
28Processor Comparison (CPU and GPU) Source: processor-guide/
30Connectivity Generation Definition Speed Technology Features 2G Digital Narrow band circuit data9.6/14.4 KbpsTDMA,CDMA2G capabilities are achieved by allowing multiple users on a single channel via multiplexing. During 2G Cellular phones are used for data also along with voice.3GDigital Broadband Packet Data3.1 Mbps (peak) KbpsCDMA 2000 (1xRTT, EVDO) UMTS, EDGE3G has Multimedia services support along with streaming are more popular. In 3G, Universal access and portability across different device types are made possible. (Telephones, PDA’s, etc.)3.5GPacket Data14.4 Mbps (peak) 1-3 MbpsHSPA3.5G supports higher throughput and speeds to support higher data needs of the consumers4GDigital Broadband Packet (All IP)Mbps (peak) 3-5 MbpsWiMax LTE Wi-FiSpeeds for 4G are further increased to keep up with data access demand used by various services. High definition streaming is now supported in 4GSource:
31Other devicesAlong with smartphones many other such devices have evolved e.g., tablets, e-book readers, notebooks etc.The Tablet computers (or simply tablets) are devices which are pretty close to smartphones with a major difference in screen size.Apple’s tablet called iPad comes in two variations: iPad WiFi and iPad WiFi+3G.Apple released a new Tablet iPad3 in March 2012 with 4G LTE compatibility.Samsung’s tablet called Galaxy Tab is a close competitor for iPad.Galaxy Tab comes in three variations ‘Galaxy Tab 7.0 Plus’, ‘Galaxy Tab 10.1’ and ‘Galaxy Tab’
32Other devicesAmazon has its own tablet with the name Kindle and there are many variations such as Kindle, Kindle Touch, Kindle Touch 3G, Kindle Keyboard, Kindle Keyboard 3G, Kindle Dx and Kindle Fire. Among these Kindle Fire is their successful tablet device.Barnes & Noble has a e-book reader by the name ‘Nook’ with three variations namely Nook Simple Touch, Nook Color, Nook Tablet.
33Other devicesMost of the tablet devices or e-book readers come in the size of 7 inch or 10 inches. These enable the user to read the contents of s, web pages very comfortable. It also gives good game playing feel for the users.Samsung’s Galaxy Note is released with a new name Phablet (Phone + Tablet) with 5.3 inch screen size – a revolution in smartphone range.The tablets or Phablet are provided with extended battery life so that the devices can be used for long times even with their higher screen sizes.They are portable – allowing the users to carry their data with them in their pockets.
34Mobile OSThe major mobile operating systems which are in practical use are Android (Google’s), iOS (Apple’s), BlackBerry OS (RIM’s) and Windows Mobile OS (Microsoft’s). The major mobile operating systems which are in practical use are Android (Google’s), iOS (Apple’s), BlackBerry OS (RIM’s) and Windows Mobile OS (Microsoft’s).
35Mobile OS - APPsEach of the mobile OS has its own application store (APP Store) with thousands of applications (free and paid).Apple’s iTunes is the biggest APP store with approximately 500,000 APPs and then follows Android’s APP store Google Play (Earlier Android Market) with close to 450,000 APPs.https://play.google.com/storeMost of the APPs are developed by third parties with very few developed by big companies such as Google, Adobe or Yahoo etc.These APPs allowed the mobile device user to take care of difficult tasks which are once done on regular computers after installing proprietary softwares. E.g., Adobe Photoshop APP enables iPhone user to add or modify a picture and post it to multiple websites such as Facebook, twitter etc.
36Mobile OS - APPsWindows has a small APP store with the name ‘Windows Marketplace for Mobile’ where windows mobile users can download from a limited apps (close to 30,000).
37Mobile OS - APPsRIM maintains an APP store for its BlackBerry mobiles with the name ‘BlackBerry App World’.
38ANDROIDAndroid is Linux based mobile OS for mobile devices such as Tablets and Smartphones.In 2005 Google acquired the initial developer of the OS, Android Inc.Then in 2007 Google formed an Open Handset Alliance with 86 hardware, software and telecom companies.This alliance developed and announced Android as an open source mobile OS under the Apache License.Now this OS is being used by multiple device manufacturers in their handsets, few of them are Samsung, Motorola, HTC, LG, Sony etc.Android developer community has large number of developers preparing APPs in Java environment and the APP store ‘Google Play’ now has close to 450,000 APPs, among which few are free and others are paid.It is estimated that till December 2011 almost 10B APPs are downloaded.It is estimated that s of February 2012 there are over 300M Android devices and approximately 850,000 Android devices are activated every day.The earliest recognizable Android version is 2.3 Gingerbread which has support for SIP and NFC.In 2011 Android Honeycomb version (3.1 and 3.2) are released with focus on Tablets. This is mainly focused on large screen devices.
39ANDROIDIn October 2011, Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich is released with new features such as facial recognition unlock, network data usage monitoring and control, unified social networking contacts, photography enhancements, offline searching, app folders, and information sharing using NFC.Android’s main features include:Handset layouts – compatible with different handset designs such as larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library basedStorage – a lightweight relational database, is used for data storageConnectivity - GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAXMessaging – SMS, MMS, threaded text messaging and Android Cloud To Device Messaging (C2DM)Multiple language supportWeb browserJava supportMedia supportStreaming media supportAdditional hardware supportMulti-touchBluetoothVideo callingMultitaskingVoice based featuresTetheringScreen captureExternal storage
40ANDROIDGoogle owns a trademark for Android – any one has to take Google’s permission to user Android’s trademark.Android’s source code is available under Apache License version 2.0. The Linux kernel changes are available under the GNU General Public License version 2.Google faced many patent lawsuits against Android such as by Oracle in 2006 that included patents US and USIn 2011 Microsoft announced it has made an agreement with Android device manufacturers and collects fees from them including Samsung and HTC.
41ANDROIDIn August 2011, Google has taken the strategic step of purchasing Motorola Mobility for saving Android from dying down because of lawsuits by Apple, Oracle and Microsoft.Also in December 2011 Google acquired approximately thousand patents from IBM for saving Android OS.
42iOSiOS is Apple’s proprietary mobile operating system initially developed for iPhone and now extended to iPAD, iPod Touch and Apple TV.Initially known as iPhone OS, in June 2010 it is renamed as iOS.iOS is not enabled for cross licensing, it can only be used on Apple’s devices.The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of usage of multi touch gestures.iOS is a Unix based OS. iOS uses four abstraction layers namely: the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. Apple’s App store contains close to 550,000 applications as of March 2012.It is estimated that the APPs are downloaded 25B times till now.First version of iOS is released in 2007 with the mane ‘OS X’ and then in 2008 the first beta version of ‘iPhone OS’ is released.In 2007 September Apple released first iPod Touch that also used this OS.In 2010 iPad is released that has a bigger screen than the iPod and iPhone.Cisco has the trademark for ‘IOS’ since long time and Apple licensed the usage of ‘iOS’ from Cisco to avoid any problems.
43iOS iOS’s main features include: Home screen Folders Notification CenterDefault APPsMultitaskingSwitching applicationsGame Center
44SummaryThe above information proved how important is the smartphone in daily life of vast range of humans ranging from business persons, academic people, individual users etc.Primary reasons behind investing lot of money in mobile computing:Opens a lot of opportunities in mobile computing and programmingGenerating revenue by pay per clickMobile device could end the use of credit cards and debit cards, e.g., in shopping stores through using NFC or Google wallet.The mobile devices can be used for different applications such as remotely controlling home appliances, PC, vehicles, TVs etc.The history of evolution of mobile device technology speaks a lot about the future trends and trade offs which will be achieved in due course of time.Number of patent lawsuits are increasing day by day for showing the company’s strength in terms of technology and protection of that technology by using patents.Companies have to slow down their competitors from going for Lawsuits.