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Mobile Handset Sensors. Outline Overview GPS Other Sensors 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Mobile Handset Sensors. Outline Overview GPS Other Sensors 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mobile Handset Sensors

2 Outline Overview GPS Other Sensors 2

3 Sensor A sensor is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an instrument 3 Visual Sensor Ultrasound Sensor Infrared Sensor

4 Mobile Handset Sensor Modern mobile handset not only serves as the key computing and communication device, but it also comes with a rich set of embedded sensors Enabling new applications across a wide variety of domains, such as transportation, social networks, environmental monitoring, healthcare, etc. Giving rise to new research areas such as mobile sensing, mobile data mining, etc. 4

5 Sensor Categories (1) Hardware-based sensors  Physical components built into a handset  They derive their data by directly measuring specific environmental properties Software-based sensors  Not physical devices, although they mimic hardware-based sensors  They derive their data from one or more hardware- based sensors 5

6 Sensor Categories (2) Motion sensors  Measure acceleration forces and rotational forces along three axes, e.g., accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. Position sensors  Measure the physical position of a device, e.g., GPS, proximity sensor, etc. Environmental sensors  Measure various environmental parameters, e.g., light sensor, thermometer, etc. 6

7 Sensor List 7 SensorFunction TypeSoftware-based or Hardware-based AccelerometerMotion SensorHardware-based GyroscopeMotion SensorHardware-based GravityMotion SensorSoftware-based Rotation VectorMotion SensorSoftware-based Magnetic FieldPosition SensorHardware-based ProximityPosition SensorHardware-based GPSPosition SensorHardware-based OrientationPosition SensorSoftware-based LightEnvironmental SensorHardware-based ThermometerEnvironmental SensorHardware-based BarometerEnvironmental SensorHardware-based HumidityEnvironmental SensorHardware-based

8 Sensors in Android OS 8 Applications Application Framework Libraries Linux Kernel GPS Driver GPS Driver Accelerometer Driver Gyroscope Driver Gyroscope Driver Thermometer Driver Thermometer Driver Other Drivers Hardware GPS Accelerometer Gyroscope Thermometer …. Android OS

9 Outline Overview GPS Other Sensors 9

10 GPS (1) Need connect to 3 satellites for 2D positioning, 4 satellites for 3D positioning More visible satellites increase precision Typical precision 20-50m; maximum precision: 10m 10

11 GPS (2) Location service using GPS in Android consists of five architectural components 11

12 GPS (3) GPS chip: Radio frequency receiver that directly communicates with GPS satellites 12

13 GPS (4) 13 GPS Driver  Communicates with the GPS chip  Provides low level APIs to high level software

14 GPS (5) 14 GPS Engine  The heart of the system  It uses configuration parameters to configure GPS  It instructs the GPS driver to detect multiple GPS satellites  Timing information can be got from NTP servers via internet (fast) or directly downloaded from Satellites (slow)  The GPS chip locks onto satellites using the timing information

15 GPS (6) 15 Android Location Service  It consists of Android framework classes like location manager that provide services to applications

16 GPS (7) 16 User Application  Location-based applications like Google maps, Navigation, etc.

17 GPS (8) Disadvantages  GPS does not work indoors  GPS quickly kills your battery  Building reflect and occlude satellite signals (reducing precision of positioning in urban environments) Alternative positioning: GPS, cell towers, Wi- Fi or combination of them 17

18 GPS (9) An example to obtain the locations (not all application do this way) 18

19 Outline Overview GPS Other Sensors 19

20 Sensor Coordinate System Most of the sensors use the same coordinate system When a device’s screen is facing the user  The X axis is horizontal and points to the right  The Y axis is vertical and points up  The Z axis pints toward outside of the screen face 20

21 Accelerometer (1) Measure proper acceleration (acceleration it experiences relative to freefall) Units: g 21

22 Accelerometer (2) Acceleration is measured on 3 axes Note that the force of gravity is always included in the measured acceleration  When the device is sitting on the table stationary, the accelerometer reads a magnitude of 1g  When the device is in free fall, the accelerometer reads a magnitude of 0g To measure the real acceleration of the device, the contribution of the force of gravity must be removed from the reading, for example, by calibration 22

23 Accelerometer (3) When the device is lying flat  gives +1g (gravitational force) reading on Z axis Stationary device, after 45 degree rotation  Same magnitude, but rotated 23

24 Gravity Sensor Gravity sensor is not a separate hardware It is a virtual sensor based on the accelerometer It is the result when real acceleration component is removed from the reading 24

25 Gyroscope (1) Measures the rate of rotation (angular speed) around an axis Speed is expressed in rad/s on 3 axis When the device is not rotating, the sensor values will be zeros 25

26 Gyroscope (2) It gives us 3 values  Pitch value (rotation around X axis)  Roll value (rotation around Y axis)  Yaw value (rotation around Z axis) 26

27 Gyroscope (3) Unfortunately, gyroscope is error prone over time. As time goes, gyroscope introduces drift in result By sensor fusion (combining accelerometer and gyroscope), results can be corrected and path of movement of device can be obtained correctly 27

28 Magnetic Field Sensor Measures direction and strength of earth’s magnetic field Strength is expressed in tesla: T Typical application: compass 28

29 Proximity Sensor (1) A proximity sensor can detect the presence of nearby objects without physical contact It often emits an electromagnetic field (e.g., infrared) and looks for changes in the field or return signal It is usually used by mobile device to determine how far a person’s head is from the face of a handset  E.g., a user is making a phone call 29

30 Proximity Sensor (2) The measured results could be different based on different devices  Most proximity sensors return the absolute distance in centimeters (cm)  Some return only a flag that represents near or far  Some return either 0.0 or the maximum value only 30

31 Light Sensor (1) It gives a reading of the light level detected by the light sensor of the device Located at front of mobile device near to front facing camera The units are in SI lux units 31

32 Light Sensor (2) The device uses the data to adjust the display’s brightness automatically  When ambient light is plentiful, the screen’s brightness is pumped up and when it is dark, the display is dimmed down  High-end Samsung galaxy phones use an advanced light sensor that can measure white, red, green, and blue light independently to fine tune image representation 32

33 Thermometer The thermometer here measures ambient temperature outside of the device In fact, there’s thermometer in almost every mobile device and some handsets might have more than one of them. However, they are used to monitor the temperature inside the device and its battery to detect overheating 33

34 Pressure Sensor Some higher-end mobile devices have a built- in pressure sensor (barometer) which can measure atmospheric pressure The data is used to determine how high the device is above sea level, which in turn can help improve GPS accuracy 34

35 References smartphonesensors.pdf smartphonesensors.pdf kinds-of-sensors-go-inside-a-smartphone_id57885 kinds-of-sensors-go-inside-a-smartphone_id57885 35

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