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© 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 1 / 22-September 1999 Wireless Application Protocol Overview Jari Alvinen Nokia.

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Presentation on theme: "© 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 1 / 22-September 1999 Wireless Application Protocol Overview Jari Alvinen Nokia."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 1 / 22-September 1999 Wireless Application Protocol Overview Jari Alvinen Nokia

2 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 2 / 22-September 1999 Business challenge There must be one global wireless network language and protocol stack Internet developers will only write to one global wireless Internet. carriers require multiple sources for compatible handsets. handset vendors require common standards for economies of scale.

3 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 3 / 22-September 1999 HTTP/HTML Why is Internet not enough? … or actually... "too much"... Big pipe - small pipe syndrome Internet Wireless network NNN Interactive NNN Intera ctive Enter name: 010011 010011 110110 010011 011011 011101 010010 011010 WAP Content encoding

4 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 4 / 22-September 1999 ? Why is Internet not enough? … or actually … "too much"... Big screen - small screen syndrome

5 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 5 / 22-September 1999 Why WAP? WAP is an open technology based on Internet technologies Allows competition - lower cost WAP is backed by major vendors Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, Microsoft, IBM Future proof WAP Forum is open for all WAP is not “take it or leave it” Over one hundred companies have joined the WAP Forum WAP supports several wireless systems GSM, IS-136, CDMA, PDC etc. WAP has a layered architecture The same application can be used via several systems

6 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 6 / 22-September 1999 WAP Forum members CCL

7 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 7 / 22-September 1999 What can be done with WAP? Information services Similar to web browsing Small downloadable programs WAP script language is based on JavaScript™ Telephony functionality combined with browser Call the airline when your flight is delayed Push Server initated content push

8 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 8 / 22-September 1999 What is defined in WAP? Layered telecommunication stack including Datagrams and Transactions Security Session Micro browser Concept that is similar to the Internet browsing XML based markup language ( WML ) Scripting ( WMLS ) WTA / WTAI Access to telephone functionality Content formats e.g. Service Indication Wireless Bitmap ( WBMP )

9 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 9 / 22-September 1999 WAP Architecture Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks with WML-Script WAP Gateway WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Client WML WML- Script WTAI Etc. HTTPWSP/WTP

10 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 10 / 22-September 1999 Internet HTML JavaScript ™ HTTP TLS - SSL TCP/IP UDP/IP Internet and WAP architecture Wireless Application Environment (WAE) SMSUSSDCSD R-DataPacket UDPPDC-P Etc... Bearers: Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Session Layer (WSP) Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) Other Services and Applications Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)

11 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 11 / 22-September 1999 WAP & Standards Submit specifications for adoption by appropriate industry and standards bodies Good relationships with standards bodies Several Liaisons with ETSI ETSI / WAP compliance profile for GSM and UMTS. CTIA official Liaison Officer to the WAP Forum WAP is actively working with the W3C and IETF

12 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 12 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack Wireless Transaction Service Access Point Wireless Datagram Protocol Bearer Service D Bearer Service C Bearer Service B Transport Service Access Point (TSAP) Bearer Service A Physical Layer Air Link Technology Wireless Transaction Protocol Wireless Session Protocol Wireless Session Service Access Point WCMP Developed by Wireless Protocols Group (WPG) A WAP technical working group.

13 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 13 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - WSP Provides shared state between client and server used to optimize content transfer Provides semantics and mechanisms based on HTTP 1.1 Enhancements for WAE, wireless networks and “low-end” devices Enhancements beyond HTTP Binary header encoding Confirmed and non-confirmed data push Capability negotiation Suspend and resume Connectionless service

14 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 14 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - WSP Binary header encoding Compact binary encoding of headers, content type identifiers and other well-known textual or structured values Reduces the data actually sent over the network Capabilities Message Size, client and server Protocol Options: Confirmed Push Facility, Push Facility, Session Suspend Facility, Acknowledgement headers Maximum Outstanding Requests Extended Methods Header Code Pages Suspend & Resume Allows the release of underlying bearer resources

15 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 15 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - WSP Connection & Connectionless service Connection-mode Long-lived communication Benefits of the session state Reliability Connectionless Stateless applications No session creation overhead No reliability overhead

16 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 16 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - WTP Reliable data transfer based on request/reply paradigm No explicit connection setup or tear down Data carried in first packet of protocol exchange Seeks to reduce 3-way handshake on initial request Supports retransmission of lost packets selective-retransmission segmentation / re-assembly port number addressing (UDP ports numbers) flow control abort function for outstanding requests concatenation of PDUs Message oriented (not stream)

17 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 17 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - WTP WTP Protocol Exchange Client Server Invoke Ack Result Ack T-TRInvoke.req T-TRResult.ind T-TRInvoke.cnf T-TRResult.res (PDUs) T-TRInvoke.ind T-TRResult.req T-TRInvoke.res T-TRResult.cnf

18 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 18 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - WDP WDP provides a connection-less, unreliable datagram service WDP is adapted to each particular wireless network to provide the generic datagram transport. The basic datagram service is fundamental to all wireless networks and makes it possible to utilize WAP everywhere Replaced by UDP when used over an IP network layer. WDP over IP is UDP/IP Uses the Service Primitive T-UnitData.req.ind

19 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 19 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - Bearer support GSM SMS, USSD, C-S Data, GPRS IS-136 R-Data, C-S Data, Packet CDMA SMS, C-S Data PDC C-S Data, Packet PHS C-S Data CDPD iDEN SMS, C-S Data, Packet FLEX and ReFLEX DataTAC

20 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 20 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - Bearer Example WAP over GSM Circuit Switched RAS - Remote Access Server IWF - InterWorking Function WSP WAE Subnetwork IP WSP WAE Apps on Other Servers WAP Proxy/Server CSD-RF PPP IP Mobile IWF PSTN Circuit CSD- RF ISP/RAS Subnetwork PSTN Circuit PPP IP WTP UDP WTP UDP

21 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 21 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - Bearer Example WAP over GSM Short Message Service SMS WDP WTP WSP WAE SMS Subnetwork WDP WDP Tunnel Protocol Subnetwork WDP Tunnel Protocol WTP WSP WAE Apps on other servers SMSC WAP Proxy/Server Mobile under development

22 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 22 / 22-September 1999 WAP Protocol Stack - WTLS Specifies a framework for secure connections, using protocol elements from common Internet security protocols like SSL and TLS. Provides connection security for two communicating applications Privacy (encryption) Data integrity (MACs) Authentication (public-key and symmetric) Lightweight and efficient protocol with respect to bandwidth, memory and processing power Employs special adapted mechanisms for wireless usage Long lived secure sessions Optimised handshake procedures Provides simple data reliability for operation over datagram bearers

23 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 23 / 22-September 1999 Wireless Application Environment ( WAE ) WAP Application framework Network-neutral application environment; Suitable for narrowband wireless devices; Follows the Internet/WWW programming model; Ensures high degree of interoperability. Leverages Internet standard technology Device Independent Network Independent International Support Developed by Wireless Applications Group (WAG); A WAP technical working group.

24 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 24 / 22-September 1999 WAE "Components" WML Display language WMLScript Scripting language WTA Telephony services API and architecture Content Formats Data exchange User Agent Profiling Content customized for device Push Server-initiated content delivery

25 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 25 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WAP Gateway Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks with WML-Script WAP Gateway WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Client WML WML- Script WTAI Etc. HTTPWSP/WTP

26 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 26 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WAP Application Server WAP Application Server Content Application Logic WML Decks with WML-Script WML Encoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Client WML WML- Script WTAI Etc. WSP/WTP

27 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 27 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WML Wireless Markup Language (WML) is a Tag-based browsing language: Screen management (text, images) Data input (text, selection lists, etc.) Hyperlinks & navigation support W3C XML-based language

28 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 28 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WML Card metaphor User interactions are split into cards Navigation occurs between cards Explicit inter-card navigation model Hyperlinks UI Event handling History State management and variables Reduce network traffic Results in better caching

29 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 29 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WML Input Elements Deck Card Navigatio n Variables { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/3753334/slides/slide_29.jpg", "name": "© 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd.", "description": "WAPXML-99.ppt / 29 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WML Input Elements Deck Card Navigatio n Variables

30 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 30 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WML Script Scripting language: Procedural logic, loops, conditionals, etc. Optimized for small-memory, small-cpu devices Derived from JavaScript™ Integrated with WML Powerful extension mechanism Reduces overall network traffic Bytecode-based virtual machine Stack-oriented design Designed for simple, low-impact implementation Compiler in network Better network bandwidth use Better use of terminal memory/cpu.

31 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 31 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WML Script Reduces network round-trips and enhance functionality. Example usages Field validation Check for formatting, input ranges, etc. Device extensions Access device or vendor-specific API Conditional logic Download intelligence into the device

32 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 32 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WML Script Functions WMLScript is very similar to JavaScript  Programming Constructs Variables function currencyConvertor(currency, exchRate) { return currency*exchangeRate; } function myDay(sunShines) { var myDay; if (sunShines) { myDay = “Good”; } else { myDay = “Not so good”; }; return myDay; }

33 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 33 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WTA WTA Browser Extensions added to standard WML/WMLScript browser Exposes additional API (WTAI) WTAI includes: Call control Network text messaging Phone book interface Indicator control Event processing WTAI available in WML & WMLScript

34 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 34 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WTA Placing an outgoing call with WTAI Input Element WTAI Call Enter phone number:

35 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 35 / 22-September 1999 WAE - WTA Placing an outgoing call with WTAI WTAI Call function checkNumber(N) { if (Lang.isInt(N)) WTAI.makeCall(N); else Dialog.alert(“Bad phone number”); }

36 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 36 / 22-September 1999 WAE - Content Formats Common interchange formats Promoting interoperability Formats: Business cards: IMC vCard standard Calendar: IMC vCalendar standard Images: WBMP (Wireless BitMaP) Compiled WML, WMLScript Service Indication ( Proposed ) Service Loading ( Proposed ) Cache Operation ( Proposed )

37 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 37 / 22-September 1999 WAE - Content Formats Binary format for size reduction Bytecodes/tokens for common values and operators Compressed headers Data compression (e.g. images) Example use of image Image Element Hello World! “[Globe]”

38 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 38 / 22-September 1999 WAE - Push Server initiated content push Provides end-to-end solution Easy for developers XML based Push Access Protocol layered on top of HTTP Helpful push specific content types Service Indication Service Loading Underlying wireless network complexity hidden Push Specifications are currently on Proposed status

39 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 39 / 22-September 1999 WAE - Push Framework CLIENT PUSH PROXY GATEWAY PUSH INITIATOR PUSH ACCESS PROTOCOL OVER-THE-AIR PROTOCOL PPG SERVICES PUSH MESSAGE

40 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 40 / 22-September 1999 WAE - User Agent Profile (UAPROF) Assist in content personalization, based upon: Device characteristics, user preferences Other profile information Working with W3C on CC/PP RDF-based content format Describes “capability and profile” info Efficient transport over wireless links, caching, etc. UAProf specification is currently on Proposed status

41 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 41 / 22-September 1999 Questions ?

42 © 1999 NOKIA, ©1999 Wireless Application Forum, Ltd. WAPXML-99.ppt / 42 / 22-September 1999 Thank you! More information: www.wapforum.org


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