41.1 데이터 통신~ is the process of communicating information in binary form between two or more points.~ is the exchange of data(in the form of 0s and 1s) between two devices via some from of transmission medium(such as a wire cable)
5기본 특성 전달(Delivery) 정확성(Accuracy) 적시성(Timeliness) ~ must deliver data to the correct destination(the intended device or user)정확성(Accuracy)~ must deliver data accurately적시성(Timeliness)~ must deliver data in a timely manner
7구성 요소(cont’d) 메시지(Message) 송신자(Sender) 수신자(Receiver) ~ is the information(data) to be communicated.(text, numbers, pictures, sound, video or any combination of these)송신자(Sender)~ is the device that sends the data message.(computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera)수신자(Receiver)~ is the device that receives the message.
8구성 요소(cont’d) 전송매체(Medium) 프로토콜(Protocol) ~ is the physically path by which a message travels from sender to receiver.(twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, laser , or radio waves(terrestrial or satellite microwave))프로토콜(Protocol)~ is a set of rules that govern data communication.
91.2 네트워크(Networks)~ is a set of devices(node) connected by media links.장치(Device)- computer, printer, any other device capable of sending and/or receiving data generated by other nodes on the network.링크(Link)- communication channel
10네트워크 평가기준(Network Criteria) Data communicationnetwork criteriaPerformanceReliabilitySecurity
11성능(Performance) Depends on a number of factors. number of users type of transmission medium(data rate)hardwaresoftware
12신뢰성(Reliability) Frequency of failure Recovery time of a network after a failureCatastrophe(큰 재난)Networks must be protected from catastrophic events such as fire, earthquake, or theft.
14네트워크 응용(Application) Marketing and sales Financial service ManufacturingElectronic messageDirectory serviceInformation serviceElectronic data interchangeTeleconferencingCellular telephoneCable television
151.3 프로토콜과 표준안 (Protocol & Standards) ~ is a set of rules that govern data communication주요 요소문법(Syntax)~ refers to the structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which they are presented.의미론(Semantics)~ refers to the meaning of each section of bits.타이밍(Timing)~ refers to two characteristics(when data should be sent and how fast it can be sent)
16표준안 Standards 표준안(Standards) By fact By law ~ are essential creating and maintaining an open and competitive market for equipment manufactures and in guaranteeing national and international interoperability of data and communications technology and processes.StandardsBy factBy law
17표준안(cont’d) by law standard by fact standard ~ are those that have been legislated by an officially recognized body.by fact standard~ are often established originally by manufactures seeking to define the functionality of a new product or technology.proprietary(closed)~ are those originally invented by a commercial organization as a basis for the operation of its products.nonproprietary(open)~ are those originally developed by group or committees that have passed them into the public domain.
181.4 표준화 기구 Standard Creation Committees ISO(The International Standard Organization)~ created in 1947~ voluntary organization~ is an organization dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards in a variety of fields(scientific, technological, economic activity)
19표준화 기구(cont’d)ITU-T(International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standards Sector)~ is an international standards organization related to the United Nations that develops standards for telecommunications.Two popular standards developed by ITU-T are the V series(data transmission over phone lines) and the X series (transmission over public digital networks)
20표준화 기구(cont’d) ANSI(American National Standard Institute) ~ is a nonprofit organization and is the U.S. voting representative to be both the ISO and the ITU-TIEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)~ is the largest national professional group involved in developing standards for computing, communication, electrical engineering, and electronics)EIA(Electronic Industries Association)~ is an association of electronics manufactures in the United States. (EIA-232-D, EIA-530 standards)
21표준화 기구(cont’d) Bellcore Forums ~ provides research and development resources for the advancement of telecommunications technology.Forums~ consist of representatives from corporation that test, evaluate and standardize new technologies.Frame Relay ForumATM Forum and ATM consortiumIETF(Internet Society and Internet Engineering Task Force)