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Gerald Madlmayr, Josef Langer, Christian Kantner, Josef Scharinger The Third International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security Speaker:

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Presentation on theme: "Gerald Madlmayr, Josef Langer, Christian Kantner, Josef Scharinger The Third International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security Speaker:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gerald Madlmayr, Josef Langer, Christian Kantner, Josef Scharinger The Third International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security Speaker: Wei-Lun Huang NFC Devices: Security and Privacy 1

2 Outline Introduction What is NFC ? Technological aspects of NFC Threat Model Threats Conclusion 2

3 Introduction NFC (Near Field Communication) is a wireless proximity communication technology. The major advantage of NFC over other wireless communication technology is simplicity. Estimations show that by 2012 there are about 180 million mobile devices equipped with this technology. 3

4 What is NFC ? It’s a two-way communication technology based on RFID. It’s a tag, and also a reader. More point up authenticate of personal than RFID. 4

5 Applications of NFC 5

6 Wireless Communication Technology Compare WiFiBluetoothInfraredNFC Range0 ~ 100 m0 ~ 10 m0 ~ 1 m< 50 cm Transfer rate High 54 Mbps Medium 1 Mbps Medium 4 Mbps Low 54 Mbps SecurityLowHighLowVery High CostHighMedium Very Low 6

7 Technological aspects of NFC Reader/Writer Mode (Proximity Coupling Device, PCD) This mode allow the user to retrieve additional information. Peer-to-Peer (Near Field Communication, NFC) This mode allow two NFC enabled devices to establish a bidirectional connection to exchange contacts, Bluetooth pairing information or any other kind of data. Card Emulation (Proximity Inductive Coupling Card, PICC) This mode is useful for payment and ticketing applications for example. 7

8 Architecture of NFC integrated in a mobile device. 8

9 Threat Model – Use cases Use of unique ID External mode of secure element Handset reads external tag Data exchange using Internal mode of secure 9

10 NFC Device Operating Modes – 1/2 Communication FlowOperation Mode Communic ation Interface Use case (1)Use of unique ID Handset providing data Reader collecting data Tag Emulation Read/Write ISO14443Access Loyalty (2) External mode of secure element Handset providing data Reader collecting data Tag Emulation Read/Write ISO14443Access Loyalty Payment (3) Handset reads external tag Tag holding data Handset reading tag/target tag (emulation) Read/Write ISO14443BT/WiFi-Config VCard transfer Smart Poster 10

11 NFC Device Operating Modes – 2/2 Communication FlowOperation Mode Communic ation Interface Use case (4) Data exchange using NFC NFC target providing data Handset collecting data Peer (Target) Peer (Init) ISO14443BT/WiFi-Config VCard transfer data exchange (5) Internal mode of secure element Secure elements in the handset Host Controller Application Internal mode Comm. channel to SE ISO14443OTA provisioning Ticket upload Money top up 11

12 Threat Model – Components and Trust Levels Host controller Applications can be given more trust by signing them with a code signing certificate to put them into a different security domain on the handset. NFC controller The communication flow between the secure elements and external readers or the host controller can be (re)routed. Secure Element The secure element is the only secure place in an NFC device. 12

13 Threat Model – Assets to be protected The User’s privacy and personal information. Address book, short messages e. g. Operability of the device. Voice and data connectivity e.g. Functionality of the host controller and applications in the secure element. Payment, access e.g. Information transferred over the RF link. 13

14 Threats Denial of Service Relay data transferred over the RF Skimming of applications in the secure element Managing in-device security Transactions over NFC peer link Issues due to the fixed unique ID Phishing 14

15 Threats - Denial of Service It is a simply way to occupy the device. Even it is a only error message, the device will still read it. Some kind of mechanism controlled by user to turn on/off of the NFC reader/write functionality. 15

16 Threats - Relay data transferred over the RF The smart card functionality could even be relayed if the battery was removed from the device. This NFC transaction flight mode would be useful in case the device runs out of battery but the user still wants to use it for access or payment. 16

17 Threats - Skimming of applications in the secure element Some feature allows 3rd party players also to see which other applications there are on the secure elements. This is not an issue directly related to the NFC technology but more to the smart card industry. 17

18 Threats - Managing in-device security Applications running on the host controller need to authenticate against the secure element before a communication can be established. Use a certificate based authentication between the application running on the host and the applets in the secure element. 18

19 Threats - Transactions over NFC peer link A plain data link with no security enables attackers to eave drop the communication and/or alter the data over the RF link. Using a certificate based authentication or Diffie - Hellman Key exchange. 19

20 Threats - Issues due to the fixed unique ID As the unique ID is specified in the standard for anti-collision, a simple hardware like OpenPICC simulates an arbitrary ID to spoof someone’s identity. The ID can also be acquired by eaves dropping the communication between the reader and the smart card chip as it is not encrypted. This issue could be bypassed by having a random number for anti- collision as already used for NFC targets and in e-passports,so it cannot be used for tracking or identification. 20

21 Threats - Phishing Attackers try to mislead users by social engineering. This is a simple and inexpensive way to mislead the user. Using signatures on tags and transporters would be suitable way to overcome this issue. 21

22 Conclusion The standardization is still ongoing. As NFC devices and services do not only rely on a handset but also on lots of different parties, security and privacy issues should be already considered on the bottom level of technology if possible. 22


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