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Early cartoon animation was simply “line” animation (line on paper) We’ll see how this evolved into cel animation with multiple layers We’ll concentrate.

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Presentation on theme: "Early cartoon animation was simply “line” animation (line on paper) We’ll see how this evolved into cel animation with multiple layers We’ll concentrate."— Presentation transcript:


2 Early cartoon animation was simply “line” animation (line on paper) We’ll see how this evolved into cel animation with multiple layers We’ll concentrate on character-based cartoon animation Cel Animation Patented in 1915 by Earl Hurd and John Bray, Cel (celluloid), sheet of clear plastic Elements traced onto clear plastic from line drawings Outline of element traced on front Paint applied to back (to eliminate visibility of brushstrokes) Sometimes large black areas were painted on front to reduce glare Placed over background Documentaries on the Animation process Making of a Popeye Cartoon, (Popeye Original Classics, Bonus Features), 1938 How Cartoons are made (Snow White Platinum edition, disc 2), 1938 Chuck Jones, Scene Selections (Animation Process)

3 Walt Disney: 1901-1966 “The two most important people in animation are Winsor McCay and Walt Disney” – Chuck Jones Walt Disney has had the greatest impact on every facet of the animation industry Started by making titles for silent films, met Ub Iwerks Walt and Ub learned animation together Laugh-O-Gram Studios, 1922 Disney and manager Charles Mintz first came up with Oswald the Lucky Rabbit Walt later came up with the idea of a cartoon mouse (on a train back to California after looking for Money out east) He initially named it “Mortimer” but Walt’s wife liked “Mickey”, thus began Disney’s history

4 Disney leveraged key technologies, methods to popularize the medium Sound Walt sold his car and mortgage to pay for sound recording, all sound done by Disney’s staff They developed a “timing” sheet for synchronizing the drawings to the sound Steamboat Willie, Walt Disney & Ub Iwerks, 1928 This is considered the first sound cartoon A few films later, Disney took on a new challenge, a cartoon based entirely on music Skeleton Dance, Walt Disney, 1929 Skeleton Dance was followed by a new line of cartoons entitled Silly Symphonies Sound cartoons and silly symphonies launched Disney’s success for the next 10 years

5 Color Up to this time, color had been used since 1912 in cartoons using a blue/orange two strip process Saw demo of 3 strip, Technicolor process in 1932 and immediately took advantage of new process Secured deal with Technicolor that no other studio could use it for 3 years First animation to use new process, Flowers and Trees (Oscar for animated short) Flowers and Trees, Walt Disney, 1932 Speed Tortoise and the Hare (1935) Disney experienced with depicting speed which hadn’t been done to this degree before Accelerated action, speed lines, new style in animation Exaggerated character personalities Won another Oscar Max Hare proved a good model for Warner’s Bugs Bunny Tortoise and the Hare, Walt Disney, 1935

6 Depth Walt also had his staff experiment with a greater sense of depth to escape the flat medium His staff developed the multi-plane camera to provide a better illusion of depth 14 ft device with camera at top shooting down multiple layers of artwork separated in space First cartoon to use the camera, The Old Mill, 1937 Cartoon primarily a mood piece, not gag driven, setting up suspense (later used in Snow White) The Old Mill, Walt Disney, 1937 Feature Film Released the first full-length animated feature (83 minutes in length) in color and with sound Touted technicolor and Multi-plane techniques Snow white, Walt Disney, 1937 Character Development Development of strong characters (Mickey, Donald, Goofy) Characters so strong, Mickey started to take backseat to Donald Mickey need more of a role in light of others taking over gags and attention Response was… Brave Little Tailor, Walt Disney, 1938

7 Ub Iwerks 1901-1971 Real talent behind Walt’s early success First drew Mickey Mouse (Steamboat Willie, Plane Crazy, …) In 30’s doing most if not all the animation or supervising it Solo outing, Fiddlesticks (starring Flip the Frog) Eventually returned to Disney Won Oscars for his work with special effects Fiddlesticks, Ub Iwerks, 1933

8 12 Principles of Animation The principles were developed over time as animators discovered techniques that created the “Illusion of life” in the drawings. The principles were taught in drawing classes to animators at the Disney studios and are still studied and applied to computer animation as well in all animation to this date. To learn more about the development of the 12 principles read : The Illusion of Life by Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston 1. Squash and Stretch 2. Anticipation 3. Staging 4. Straight ahead/ pose to pose 5. Overlapping action/ follow through 6. Slow in/ Slow Out 7. Arcs 8. Secondary Action 9. Timing 10. Exaggeration 11. Solid Drawing 12. Appeal

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