Presentation on theme: "FISIKA DASAR By: Mohammad Faizun, S.T., M.Eng. Head of Manufacture System Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Islam Indonesia."— Presentation transcript:
FISIKA DASAR By: Mohammad Faizun, S.T., M.Eng. Head of Manufacture System Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Islam Indonesia
1. QUANTITY (besaran) and UNITS (satuan) From the picture below you can exactly say that line B is longer than line A. Paper D is narrower than paper C. Length and Area are two examples of quantity. Quantity is the properties of matter which can be measured. A B C D Everything which can be MEASURED is quantity.
NoPhenomenaCan be measured?How?Is it quantity? 1Time 2Age 3Mass 4Temperature 5Emotion 6Color 7Length 8Line 9Bright 10Love Fill in the empty cell on the table below! “Everything that can be COUNTED is quantity”. Is this statement true? Why? What is the difference between COUNTING (menghitung) and MEASURING (mengukur)?
We can differentiate two things or more by comparing their quantities for example: longer, narrower, lighter, colder, etc. But you still confused unless you tell exactly how big the quantities. So we need units. For example: 1.12 cm, 30 feet, 120 km. cm, feet, and km are examples of units for length quantity. 2.12 gram, 30 pounds, 2 ton. Gram, pound, and ton are examples of units for mass quantity. 3.5 second, second is an example of units for time. Quantity without units is worthless.
Determine the quantity and the units in each information below if possible! 1.Ruddy is 1.75 meters tall. 2. Mr. Anton has five cars. 3.The mass of the book is 1 kg. 4.We need 4 litres of water a day. 5.I will stay here a month. 6.The speed of the car is 100 km/h.
QUANTITY (besaran) UNITS (satuan) MEASUREMENT (Pengukuran) RESULT Value + unit 6 cm Satuan adalah nilai tertentu yang disepakati dari suatu besaran. Pengukuran: membandingkan nilai besaran dengan satuannya.
There are two kinds of units: SI (Systéme International) units and non SI units. SI units is Internationally accepted, means all people in all countries know that units. Units Non SI Units SI Units m k s c g s (gaussian) NoQuantity SI Non SI mkscgs 1Lengthmetercentimeterinchi, feet, mil 2Masskilogramgrampound, ton, ons 3Timesecond 4Volumem3m3 cm 3 liter, galon 5Densitykg/m 3 g/cm 3 kg/l, g/l, pound/l
NoQuantity SI Non SI mkscgs 1Lengthmetercentimeterinchi, feet, mil 2Masskilogramgrampound, ton, ons 3Timesecond 4Volumem3m3 cm 3 liter, galon 5Densitykg/m 3 g/cm 3 kg/l, g/l, pound/l
It’s suggested to always use SI units. How are those SI units defined?
one meter In October 1983, the meter (1 m) was redefined as the distance traveled by light in vacuum during a time of 1/299 792 458 second. In effect, this latest definition establishes that the speed of light in vacuum is precisely 299 792 458 m per second. One meter that we use today is same with the definition. We use roll meter for example to measure length of the wood bar or others.
one kilogram Mass is amount of matter in an object. To get better understanding please compare two cans filled in with different amount of marbles. Guess which can has more weight! Can A has marbles less than can B, 8 less than 16, right? So, can A has smaller mass than can B. The basic SI unit of mass, the kilogram (kg), is defined as the mass of a specific platinum–iridium alloy cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sèvres, France. This mass standard was established in 1887 and has not been changed since that time because platinum–iridium is an unusually stable alloy (Fig. 1.5). We use arm balance to measure mass of something. A B
One Kilogram StandardArm Balance Benarkah neraca pegas bisa dipakai untuk menghitung massa sebuah benda dimana saja? Jelaskan alasannya!
one second The basic SI unit of time, the second (s), is defined as 9,192, 631,770 times the period of vibration of radiation from the cesium-133 atom.
In addition to the basic SI units of meter, kilogram, and second, we can also use other units, such as millimeters and nanoseconds, where the prefixes milli- and nano- denote various powers of ten.
2. BASIC QUANTITIES (besaran pokok) and ITS DERIVATION (besaran turunan) Fundamentals or basic quantities is now believed as quantities that not derived from other quantities. Even they form other quantities. NOQuantity SI Units Symbol Dimensions Non SI 1Masskilogramkg[M]Pound, ons, etc 2Lengthmeterm[L]Inchi, feet 3Timeseconds[T] 4Electric CurrentampereA[I] 5TemperaturekelvinK[θ]Rankine, Fahrenheit 6Luminous Intensitycandelacd[Cd] 7Amount of Substancemole [mole] 8Angle 2Dradianrad 9Angle 3Dsteradiansr
Besaran turunan Besaran turunan adalah besaran yang terbentuk dari besaran- besaran pokok. Contoh: Luas panjang x panjang, Volume panjang x panjang x panjang Berat massa x panjang x waktu -2 Volume: 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm. : 1000 cm 3. 10 cm
SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantities Basic derivative scalar vector Scalar quantity is one that has only value but no direction. Example: mass, length, time. All basic quantities are scalar quantities. Vector quantity is one that has both value and direction. Example: force, velocity, pressure, etc.
See figure below! A. You know that the volume of cylinder is 1 liter. If you asked where is the direction of that volume you will not be able to answer, because volume doesn’t have direction. So, volume is scalar quantities. B shows that the velocity of the block is 10 m/s and the direction is rightward. Having velocity without direction is impossible. A B 1 L v = 10m/s