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Communication The process of the exchange of information between a sender and a receiver through a medium (channel) which results in shared feedback.

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Presentation on theme: "Communication The process of the exchange of information between a sender and a receiver through a medium (channel) which results in shared feedback."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication The process of the exchange of information between a sender and a receiver through a medium (channel) which results in shared feedback.

2 Channels of Communication FORMAL CHANNELS Downward Communication Upward Communication INFORMAL CHANNELS Horizontal Communication “Management by Walking Around” Grapevine

3 Communication Management Conceptual Skill--Ability to solve problems and demonstrate decision-making skills Technical Skill--Ability to demonstrate knowledge through tactile techniques Human Skill--Ability to interact with people

4 Corporate Culture Myths Myth One: Corporate Culture is a homogeneous organizational characteristic Myth Two: All members of the organization share the same values, beliefs, and traditions Myth Three: The leaders of the organization have the ability to shape the corporate culture Myth Four: All organizations should strive for one culture

5 Culture vs. Climate Culture is defined as the values and beliefs shared by the members of a society; a set of shared assumptions and understandings about organizational functionings (the ‘why do things happen the way they do’) Climate refers to the ways organizations operationalize the themes that pervade everyday behavior--the routines of organizations and the behaviors that get rewarded, supported, and expected by organizations (the ‘what happens around here’)

6 Communication Networks Chain Network--Traditional organizational structure (Layered) Wheel Network--Very centralized, autocratic Circle Network--Participative organization Star Network--Laissez-faire “free rein” organization

7 Ethics Guidelines which help to identify what is right and what is wrong behavior. Acting responsibly for the common good Telling the truth Avoiding misleading others Sharing vital information

8 Five Steps in the Communication Process The sender has an idea (encoding) The message is planned, organized, and sent The message (type) is sent through a channel (medium) The receiver reacts to the message (decoding) Effective communication results in shared feedback

9 Communication Signals Sign language: All symbols Action Language: Kinesics, gestures Object Language: Intentional and unintentional displays The meaning may be construed in many ways by the sender and receiver. Ex: the sign of victory, the “ok” sign, the words “sorry, torch, buns,” the biggest rock.

10 Words, Words, Words Idioms: Pet expressions, jargon Euphemisms Offensive, sexist language Biased language Stereotyped language Illiterate language Formal language Colloquial language “Ese, Ize” language Redundant language Cliche’

11 The written message Writing style Format Message (Purpose--Why) Audience (Who) Content (What) Timeliness (When) Medium (How) Tone

12 A Brave New World of Words Twenty-five percent of words added to the dictionary in 1998 were computer -generated A normal adult uses 20,000 words regularly The English language contains a million words--give or take. The ten most looked up words on Webster web site were (in order): paradigm, love, thesaurus, ubiquitous, HTML, effect, gry, affect, home, dog

13 Sample of 100 Words Added in 1998 Action figureday job adrenalizedeuro apoptosisF/X bloviategazillion bottom-feedernewbie buffalo wingramen cellaphone noodletrash talk chat roomyuppie flu comfort foodnetiquette

14 And the infamous word in 1998 Is-- –The Starr Report: “salacious” –“Censure” was the most looked up word on 12/10/98

15 And if you were afraid to ask: Gry is a measure equal to one-tenth of a line. Only two words in the English language end in “gry”--hungry and angry And to be honest, the word gry is outdated/obsolete and no longer used by ordinary people!

16 And more on words... The word with the most definitions is “set” The 50 most frequently used words in English account for 45 percent of the total volume of words used. In a recent study conducted OC Register (12/22/98) college students were asked the meaning of a few words added to Webster’s dictionary such as:

17 The Words…. Ramen Bloviate Frisee Gopik Kroon Meme Stotin

18 Let’s see how you fared! Bloviate: –to speak or write verbosely or windily Frisee: –curly chicory leaves, used in a salad, also called frisee lettuce Gopik: –a kind of money, from Russia and Azerbaijan Kroon: –a kind of money, Estonia Meme: –an idea or behavior, style, or usage that spreads from person to person within a culture Stotin: –A money, from Slovenia

19 And Today our Language is... Less Formal and Eloquent More Comprehensible and Concise A communication revolution has taken place in the last 100 years. –Language is more technical and specialized; therefore, the English common core language has increased from 65,000 words to over 160,000 words

20 The C’s of Writing Completeness--Providing all the info needed to promote effective communication Conciseness--Providing all the info in a clear, brief manner Courteousness--The tone of the message (empathy with the reader) Clarity--Delivering the message in the manner intended. Considerately--Using language the reader will understand Correctness--The facts, spelling, grammar, and essential details add to the sender’s credibility.

21 The two-fold process Build or create goodwill Get the desired response

22 Stereotyping vs. Ethnocentrism Stereotyping: Classifying a particular group of people in a like manner Ethnocentrism: The belief that one’s culture is superior to other cultures

23 The rule of 12 People are judged when they are 12 feet away based on overall appearance People are judged when they are 12 inches away based on body grooming and scent People are judged by the first 12 words they speak

24 Nonverbal Communication Eye contact Proxemics Greetings Colors and dress Status Gender Differences Time attitudes Decision-making Food and eating habits Grooming

25 Written/oral Differences Business correspondence Advertising Regional accents Word usage


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