2 Thomas JeffersonJefferson took office in 1801 and during the time most of the United States lived 50 miles from the Atlantic OceanAmericans only knew about the West from fur trappers and British and Spanish ExplorersJefferson decided to form an expedition on a budget of $2,500 to explore the WestIn order to form the expedition he needed to get permission from Congress and January 18, 1803 he sent a confidential letter to congress requesting the expedition to be formed.Congress granted his request and the idea for the expedition was formed.
3 Reasons for ExploringJefferson wanted to find a water route that lead to the Pacific Ocean.He hope to establish relationships with Indian tribes of the West in hopes establish tradeJefferson also wanted to see what could be learned about the geography of the West, the lives and languages of Native Americans, the plants and animals, the soil, the rock, the weather, and how they differed from those in the East.
4 Louisiana PurchaseThe expedition was founded before the Louisiana Purchase was bought and Jefferson was going explore the land even though the French owned it.Jefferson wanted the territory but mainly he wanted control over the port town of New Orleans.The land was purchased from France who was being ruled at the time by Napoleon Bonaparte.They agreed to purchase the Louisiana Territory which included New Orleans. In the end the acquired more land that they had originally hoped for.The purchase from France cost $15 million and was 827,000 square miles of land.The new territory gained doubled the size of the United States.
6 Meriwether LewisMeriwether Lewis was one of Thomas Jefferson’s childhood friend.He served six years in the Frontier army and rose to the level of a Captain.In 1801 Lewis was appointed as Thomas Jefferson’s personal secretary and aid.Lewis was named the commander of the expedition created to explore the lands gained during the Louisiana Purchase.He was given the task of finding a co-commander to help him lead the expedition.
7 William Clark Clark was a Virginia native just like Meriwether Lewis. All of Clark’s brothers were Revolutionary War veterans and he started his military career at the age of 19 by joining the Virginia Militia.He reached the status of a lieutenant in the regular army and later moved up to the position of a Captain.Twice Clark was used to spy on the Spanish to monitor their building of forts and explorations.
8 Reasons the leaders were chosen Meriwether LewisBrave, practical and carefulFamiliar with the woodsKnowledgeable with Indian manners and characterIn great physical conditionTook courses in astronomy as well as cartography.Sharp eye for details about plants and animalsWilliam ClarkLearned how to build fortsKnew how to draw mapsCould lead pack trains through enemy countryHad fought the Indian’s on their ground.
9 The beginning of the Expedition Lewis and Clark were responsible for choosing the men to accompany them on their journey.They started preparing and gathering people and supplies to take with them on the trip.The men had an keel boat crafted so that they could travel up the river.The keel boat was useful because it could be rowed, sailed, poled like a raft, or towed from the riverbank.Two wooden Pirogues were taken along as well to hold men and supplies.
10 Types of Supplies Brought Mathematical instrumentsCamp suppliesPresents for IndiansClothingArms and AmmunitionMedicine and medical suppliesBooks and resources
12 Camp Supplies150 yards of cloth to be oiled and sewn into tents and sheetsPliersChiselsSteels for striking fireHatchetsMosquito curtainsFishing hooks and lineSoapPortable soupSaltWriting ink , paper and crayons
13 Presents for Indians Pocket mirrors Sewing needles Scissors Sewing ThreadRibbonsCombsHandkerchiefsTobaccoTomahawks that served as pipesKnivesKettlesBeads
14 Clothing and Ammunition Flannel shirtsCoatsFrocksShoesWoolen pantsBlanketsKnapsacksStockingsCaliber rifflesKnives420 pounds of sheet lead for bullets176 pounds of gunpowder500 rifle flints1 compressed air rifle
15 Medical Supplies 50 dozen of Rush’s pills Lancets Forceps Syringes TourniquetsDoses for physic, emetic, diaphoreticOther drugs for blistering, salivation, and increased kidney output
16 Library Resources map of the Great Bend of the Missouri River Barton’s Elements of BotanyAntoine Simon Le Page du Pratz’s History of LouisianaRichard Kirwan’s Elements of MineralogyA Practical Introduction to Spherics and Nautical AstronomyThe Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemerisa four-volume dictionarya two-volume edition of Linnaeus (the founder of the Latin classification of plants)tables for finding longitude and latitudemap of the Great Bend of the Missouri River
17 Corps of DiscoveryThe Corps of Discovery was the name given to Lewis and Clark and the members of their expedition.The corps consisted of many different types of people and it was Lewis and Clark’s job to decide what types of men they needed for the job and who was best suited.
18 TranslatorsLewis and Clark needed translators of many Indian languages to help them along their journey.They often hired men who spoke multiple languages and help them with many Indian tribes.Some translators did not know English and Lewis and Clark had to go through a line of many translators just to communicate.Verbal Indian language, while useful was not the only form of communication the explorers needed to use. Sign language was an important aspect in Native American culture, so Lewis and Clark brought translators along who could sign as well.They also needed translators who were familiar with the unknown territories of the west.
19 Toussaint Charbonneau Charbonneau was a French fur trader who lived amongst the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians.He spoke French as well as Hidatsa and was chosen to be a translator and to also bring his one of his wife’s Sacagawea along on the trip.At first Charbonneau rejected the offer because he did not want to have to perform regular duties of other men on the trip, but he apologized and the Captains signed him onto the trip.
20 George DrouillardDrouillard was helpful to Lewis and Clark because he knew the Indian character and sign language.He had a French Canadian father and a Shawnee Indian mother.He was one of the only non-military men to complete the trip from camp Dubois to the Pacific and back
21 Sacagawea was a Shoshone Indian girl who was taken from her people by the Hidatsa Indians. She was then sold to Toussaint Charbonneau as a slave who then later took her as one of his wives.Charbonneau and Sacagawea were a translating team because she knew how to speak Shoshone as well as Hidatsa.She remembered trails from when she was a child and proved to be very valuable on the trip
22 Jean BaptisteSacagewea was the only woman on the expedition and she was also pregnant at the time.She had a baby boy and named him Jean Baptist Charbonneau.Clark too great favoritism to the little boy and foundly referred to him as little pompy or pomp.This nickname was created because he was a little boy who was always showing off and dancing.Clark carved his name into a tower of sandstone in a river bend and called it Pompy’s tower. Today you can still see the name and it is the only evidence of the explorers that is still left on the trail.
23 YorkYork was Captain Clark’s slave and he is the only other non-military man besides Drouillard to complete the whole trip.He helped the explorers wherever needed and was said to be a hunter and also concerned with the safety of the camp.The Indians often took interest in York because he was the first black man that they had ever seen.
24 Seaman Lewis brought along his Newfoundland dog on the trip with him. The dog’s name was originally thought to be Scannon do to historians misreading the journals written by the men on the trip.Seaman was a great companion and would often help the explorers by barking and warning them of up coming dangers.
25 Military OfficersLewis and Clark took many military officers with them along the trip. They were used as protection as well as man power to maneuver the boats and supplies.The men ranged in rank from captains to sergeants and privates.
26 Charles Floyd Floyd was a sergeant on the trip. He wrote journals along the way that were later published along with another Corps member.He died unexpectedly on the trip and was the only reported causality.Medical professionals believe that he died of a ruptured appendix.
27 Francois LabicheLabiche was a private on the trip, but he became very useful to Lewis and Clark.He was useful in the train of translation because he could speak French which enabled him to talk to Charbonneau who could speak to Sacagewea.Labiche was also a skilled boatman and frontier trader and knew several lower Missouri Indian languages.