Human Cloning By: Bailey Rogers http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/images/ch4_twins.jpg
What Is Cloning? Cloning is the process in which an organism is created that is the exact genetic copy of a another. http://chessclubparty.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/internet_clones.jpg
The Different Types of Cloning There are 2 Types of Cloning Natural Clones – Clones that occur naturally such as twins Artificial Clones – Clones that are created in science and labs There are 3 Types of Artificial Cloning Recombinant DNA Technology Reproductive Cloning Therapeutic Cloning http://oxleylearning.org/germandictionary/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/twins2.jpg
Recombinant DNA Technology All so known as “DNA Cloning”, “Molecular Cloning”, and “Gene Cloning” It is the transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a plasmid. After this is done the DNA can then be propagated in to a foreign host cell. This type of cloning is generally used to create many copies of one certain gene of interest – was used in the Human Genome Project http://fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/Dana/chimericDNA.gif
Reproductive Cloning Reproductive Cloning is used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another animal currently or previously alive. Dolly the sheep, the first animal ever cloned, was cloned this way using a method called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" or SCNT, transferred material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg that had it’s genetic material removed. The egg containing the DNA from a donor cell must be treated with chemicals or electric current in order to stimulate cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage, it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it continues to develop until birth. If we ever clone a human this is the way it would be done. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309076374/xhtml/images/p2000a43fg7001.jpg http://www.library.northwestern.edu/govinfo/news/090222.jpg
Therapeutic Cloning Also called “Embryo Cloning” It is the production of human embryos for use in research Ex: Stem Cell Research This method is used to harvest stem cells that can be used to study the development of humans and as a form to treat diseases. These stem cells are harvested from the egg after it has divided for 5 days. http://www.csus.edu/indiv/g/gaskilld/pics/stcl_di3.jpg
Why Clone a Human? Help infertile couples have children and gay couples have children Many couples are becoming infertile who wish to have children however they want one that is of there own blood and not of another's so cloning would be ideal for them. Replace a child that has died If a child dies and the parents can’t have any more children this would be an ideal solution. Organ and tissue transplants Adam Nash was the first baby born after genetic testing of his embryo showed that he would have the traits necessary to provide a cell transplant for his 6 year old dyeing sister.
Why Clone a Human?.... To recreate extraordinary people Ex. Einstein, Mozart, Gandhi, Elvis – however there is no guarantee that they would turn out the same Provide treatments for a variety of diseases The cloning of stem cells will provide treatment for diseases like; Parkinson’s, Diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Stroke, Multiple Sucrose's and many more Genetic Modification/Engineering Parents would have the opportunity to choose what they want there child to look like and how there children will act. Ex: making there children smarter, prettier, creative, athletic even the color of there hair and eyes http://librarykvpattom.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/050405_einstein_tonguewidec.jpg
The Ethics Of Human Cloning Is it Right? Many people have different views on cloning some say it is the next step in biotechnology while others believe we would be going to far that we should let nature be Religious View Catholic – Say’s Cloning is a “violation of human dignity” Islamic – believes that it is morally and religiously wrong to employ cloning technology for purposes other than therapeutic cloning Buddhists – Have no real philosophical problem All religions question “Can you clone a soul?” The Clones Rights If we do clone humans should they have the same rights as we do or would they just be like pigs and only harvest what is needed of them and then dispose of them
Bibliography Cloning Fact Sheet. (2008, September 16). Retrieved May 2, 2009, from Human Genome Program Web site:http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml The Advantages of Cloning. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2009, from ThinkQuest Internet Challenge team C0122429 Web site: http://library.thinkquest.org/C0122429/ethics/advantages.htm Yount, L. (2000). Cloning (L. Yount, Ed.). Contemporary Issues Companion. San Diego, CA: David L. Bender. (Original work published 2000) Woodward, J. (Ed.). (2005). The Ethics Of Human Cloning. USA: Thomson Gale. Hyde, M. O., & Setaro, J. (n.d.). FACTS AND FANTASIES ABOUT HUMAN CLONING. In Medicine's Brave New World (chapter six). Minneapolis Minnesota: Lerner Publishing Group. Retrieved from EBSCOhost database
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