Presentation on theme: "Adjectives and adverbs. Language is a symbolic system that we use to conventionally represent a certain reality, i.e. it is not a reflection of real."— Presentation transcript:
Adjectives and adverbs
Language is a symbolic system that we use to conventionally represent a certain reality, i.e. it is not a reflection of real reality, and it does not represent reality fully and accurately, but often partially and imaginatively; When “objective” reality comes in contact with our mind, language transforms it into some representation of reality; Evaluative modality tells us about how people and things are represented; Evaluative modality can be expressed through: Adjectives (splendid, terrible, fantastic, etc.) Adverbs (happily, incredibly, unfortunately, poorly, highly, etc.)
Reality Language Representation of reality
Adjectives are tools to represent not reflect reality; Adjectives are used to qualify or modify nouns as representing objects and abstractions in the “real world”; They can either precede nouns or follow them; When they follow nouns, they can either follow verb “to be” or follow the noun immediately;
When they precede nouns in English, adjectives are known as attributive; Example: the wrong candidate (the candidate is not the right one) Such adjectives convey more permanent meanings; Because they are unsuspected, attributive adjectives are more exploited for persuasion than predicative adjectives;
When they follow verb “to be”, adjectives are known as predicative (e.g. The party is wonderful, the candidate is wrong); Such adjectives convey a temporary reference.
Most adjectives are gradable through comparison (tall taller the tallest); Gradability is also realized through intensifying adverbs which convey the degree of intensity of the adjective (useful so useful very useful extremely useful); Some stative adjectives are not gradable, especially denominal ones (atomic scientist) and adjectives denoting provenance (British actor)
Judgment assumes the involvement of human consciousness, volition or intentionality; Judgment attributes some sense of `blame' to the human participant who is evaluated; Accordingly, value judgments can be slotted into the Collocational Frame = It was Judgment-Value of Judged to Verbal Process: (It was dishonest of you not to tell her; It was brave of Mary to stand her ground; It was clever of you to hide your wallet in the vegetables; It was eccentric of you to wear that hat. Thus the following would be incongruous - *It was beautiful of the sunset to light up the sky like that / *It was ugly of the scar to gape like that.
When they occur outside the structure of the clause, adverbs are known as sentence adverbials, which express an evaluation of what is being said with respect to the form or content of communication: e.g. Sadly the government has decided to abandon its commitment to the comprehensive school system (skilfully, corruptly, lazily); Stylistically, some sentence adverbials could be carriers of attitudes.
Study evaluative adjectives and adverbs in the following text: Below the towering peak of Mont Blanc lies Chamonix, famous for skiing and mountaineering alike. Besides its quaint charm and interesting architecture, it has some of the best skiing in Europe, including the world-famous Vallée Blanche run. Delightfully furnished in traditional French style with wood-panelled corridors, this simple but clean hotel offers a friendly welcome and is conveniently located near Chamonix’s après-ski centre. This friendly hotel retains much of the typical French atmosphere found in this part of the Alps and its homely restaurant, decorated in natural wood, provides good, traditional meals. Besides a comfortable lounge and dining room the hotel boasts one of the most popular après-ski bars in the town. The bar, noted for its exotic cocktails, is often the scene of lively and spontaneous entertainment around the big, open stone fireplace. In the pleasant restaurant with its excellent views of the mountains and forests our guests can enjoy delicious home cooking including two regional specialities such as the ‘braserade’ table barbecue. Bright and airy with large French windows overlooking the slopes, studios are pleasantly decorated with fitted carpets, radio and telephone. All rooms have two twin beds and an additional single divan sofa which sleeps a third person comfortably.