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EngageNY.org Session 3 Beyond Good Instructional Design Basics: Specific Supports for English Language Learners 1.

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Presentation on theme: "EngageNY.org Session 3 Beyond Good Instructional Design Basics: Specific Supports for English Language Learners 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 EngageNY.org Session 3 Beyond Good Instructional Design Basics: Specific Supports for English Language Learners 1

2 EngageNY.org Session Objective Integrate oral and written English language instruction into the Skills Strand  Reading time  Routines 2

3 EngageNY.org A FOCUS ON READING TIME IN THE SKILLS ROUTINES Scaffolding 3

4 EngageNY.org Effective Methods Use sound research-based methods that focus on all the key components of reading: Integrate oral and written English language instruction into the Skills Strand ): instructional tools, vocabulary, student talk, and writing References: August & Shanahan, 2010; Baker et al., 2014) 4 comprehension vocabulary oral reading fluency letter naming phonemic awareness decoding word reading

5 EngageNY.org Overview of Key Shifts Academic Vocabulary: Build academic vocabulary throughout instruction Additional supports for ELLs:  ELLs need support for acquiring vocabulary that many English-proficient students have already acquired. Reading Text Closely/Text-Based Evidence: Read closely and answer a sequence of text-dependent questions Writing from Sources: Draw evidence from text to produce clear and coherent writing that informs, explains, or makes an argument in various written forms (e.g., notes, short responses, summaries, or formal essays) 5

6 EngageNY.org ACADEMIC VOCABULARY Build Vocabulary in Context Throughout Instruction

7 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Selection: ELLs ELLs typically exhibit vocabulary growth rates that are similar to or surpass those of native English speakers. However, ELLs are often 2-3 years behind their English- speaking peers, so a large vocabulary gap remains. ELLs reading comprehension is impaired because they don’t know highly frequent English words that English proficient students are likely to have acquired.  The 100 most frequent English words account for about 50% of words that readers encounter in text.  The 1,000 most frequent English words account for about 70% of words that readers encounter in text.  The 4,000 most frequent English words account for about 80% of words that readers encounter in text. 7 Frequency

8 EngageNY.org Seward Reading Resources: Vocabulary Selection: ELLs 8 1 st Quartile2 nd Quartile3 rd Quartile4 th Quartile First 4000 Words List In 1812 James Madison had a hard choice to make. Many Americans were angry with the British. Some of them were saying the United States should declare war on Great Britain. But others disagreed. They said the United States should not go to war. Madison was president of the United States. He had to decided what to do. Should he ask the U.S. Congress to declare war? Or should he try to keep the peace?

9 EngageNY.org 9 First 4000 Words List: Analyzer Results

10 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Selection: ELLs To be successful readers, ELLs need to know words that are frequent across multiple texts (see previous slides). ELLs also need to know the meanings of words and phrases that are crucial to understanding the text at hand (as indexed by the text dependent questions). 10 Importance to Text TextText-dependent Question Key Vocabulary In 1812 James Madison had a hard choice to make. Many Americans were angry with the British. Some of them were saying the United States should declare war on Great Britain. But others disagreed. They said the United States should not go to war. Madison was president of the United States. He had to decided what to do. Should he ask the U.S. Congress to declare war? Or should he try to keep the peace? What did Madison have to decide hard choice angry declare war disagree decide keep the peace

11 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Selection: ELLs Words that are conceptually complex are more difficult to acquire. Conceptually complex words may require more intensive instruction. Conceptual complexity:  Imageability  Concreteness  Relatedness 11 Conceptual Complexity

12 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs Teacher directed instruction  More intensive instruction for abstract words Provide the definition in context Provide the home language definition and cognate status Illustrate the word Invite students to talk about the word Less intensive instruction (i.e., ESOL techniques) for concrete words Define the word in situ Use gestures to demonstrate the word Show the word in illustrations from the text Student directed learning  Glossaries  Word learning strategies 12

13 EngageNY.org 13 Sentence Frame: I already _________ when my ___________ asked me. More Complex Vocabulary Look at the picture. The player (in the red hat) is trying to catch the ball so he can tag the runner (in the blue shirt) but the runner is already on base. The runner was on base before the other player caught the ball. Let’s talk about the word already. Already means something that happened before now. Already in Spanish is ya. For example, my brother asked me to wash his car, but I already washed it. Partner talk: Tell your partner about a time a family member asked you to do something, but you already did it. Use the sentence stem: I already _______when my ________ asked me. (Call on one or two students to share their responses.) Let’s spell already. [a,l,r,e,a,d,y] What word have we spelled? [already] Students see:The teacher says:

14 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs 14 *Governess picture not in this version of the text; shown as an example. Less Complex Vocabulary WordESOL Technique bravedefine in situ He was a brave leader. This means he was ready to face pain or danger. Another word for brave is courageous. angrydemonstrate or gesture (e.g., make a happy or sad face) Madisonshow a picture from the text

15 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs Student directed learning Glossary use Application of word learning strategies Cognates, context clues, morphology, etc. Dictionaries and digital resources Online: English: wordsmyth.net spanish.dictionary.com Smartphone apps: English: SnaPanda (Android) English: Dictionary! (Android & iPhone) Free Spanish English Dictionary + (iPhone) English Spanish dict. (Android) 15

16 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs 16 Glossaries

17 EngageNY.org Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs 17 Word Learning Strategies WordStrategy disagreecontext clues Some were saying the US should declare war. But others said the US should not go to war. decidecognate decidir hard choiceglossary use

18 EngageNY.org Your Turn Turn to the Vocabulary Activity. Note the words that have been selected for instruction because they are high frequency or important for understanding the text. Complete the chart.  Identify some words for teacher-directed vocabulary instruction prior to the close read and explain why.  Identify some words for teacher-directed vocabulary instruction during the close read and explain why.  Identify some words that students might learn using student-directed vocabulary learning (think about cognates and context clues and explain why. 18

19 EngageNY.org READING TEXT CLOSELY/ TEXT-BASED EVIDENCE Read Closely and Answer a Sequence of Text- Dependent Questions

20 EngageNY.org Overview of Key Shifts Academic Vocabulary: Build academic vocabulary throughout instruction Reading Text Closely/Text-Based Evidence: Read closely and answer a sequence of text-dependent questions Additional supports for ELLs Present text in smaller chunks Engage students in multiple readings Provide supplementary questions, sentence starters, sentence frames and word banks ensure ELLs understand task demands Writing from Sources 20

21 EngageNY.org Should be standards aligned Should have a text-based focus: Require the reader to go back to the text to find out what it says Have concrete and explicit answers rooted in the text Not be answered solely on personal opinion, background information, and/or imaginative speculation See examples that follow. Reading: All Students 21 Source: Pook, D. (2012). Implementing the CCSS: What teachers need to know and do. Text-Dependent Questions:

22 EngageNY.org Reading: All Students 22 Align Questions to ELA Standards ClusterStandardTrouble with the British Key Ideas and Details Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (2.1) How did many Americans feel about the British? Who was Madison? Key Ideas and Details Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text. (2.2) What did Madison have to decide?

23 EngageNY.org Reading: All Students 23 Align Questions to ELA standards *Thayer, E. L. (1888). “Casey at the Bat.” In H. Ferris (Ed.), Favorite poems old and new. Doubleday (1957). ClusterStandardTrouble with the British Craft and Structure Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade two topic or subject area. The text says “Other Americans disagreed.” What does the word disagree mean? Use the text to try to understand the meaning. Craft and Structure Know and use various text features to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. Use your glossary to find the meaning of the phrase “hard choice.”

24 EngageNY.org Reading: All Students 24 Source: Pook, D. (2012). Implementing the CCSS: What teachers need to know and do. Ensure Questions Have a Text Based Focus Requires the reader to go back to the text to find evidence. Cannot be answered solely on personal opinion, background information, and/or imaginative speculation. Non-Text Dependent Questions Have you ever been to Europe? Who is our current president? When is a time you sided with someone during a fight? Text Dependent Questions What countries in Europe were at war? Who was Madison? Who did some people side with?

25 EngageNY.org Reading: ELLs Present Text in Smaller Sections Identify two or more main occurrences within the text excerpt Divide text into sections such that each contains one occurrence 25 Occurrence 1Occurrence 2 In 1812 James Madison had a hard choice to make. Many Americans were angry with the British. Some of them were saying the United States should declare war on Great Britain. But others disagreed. They said the United States should not go to war. Madison was president of the United States. He had to decided what to do. Should he ask the U.S. Congress to declare war? Or should he try to keep the peace? At the time, Great Britain was already at war with France. The two countries had been fighting for years. Most of the countries in Europe where involved in the war. Some sided with the British. Others sided with the French. The French were led by a man named Napoleon. He was a brave leader. He had beaten the British in a number of battles. Still the British kept fighting.

26 EngageNY.org Reading: ELLs 26 Reading for Key Ideas and Details Teacher Read Aloud: The teacher reads the text aloud to demonstrate native speaker fluency. First Close Read: Students read the text in pairs or groups and answer questions focused on key ideas and details and vocabulary. Annotating for Key Ideas and Details Annotation: Students re-read the text and note vocabulary and details that they do not yet understand. Revisiting for Craft and Structure Second Close Read: Students read the text in pairs or groups and answer questions focused on craft and structure. Engage Students in Multiple Readings

27 EngageNY.org Reading: ELLs Guiding Question: What did Madison have to decide? He had to decide if he should ask the U.S. Congress to declare war or if he should try to keep the peace. 27 Ask Guiding Questions Ask a guiding question for every portion of text that introduces a main idea. In 1812 James Madison had a hard choice to make. Many Americans were angry with the British. Some of them were saying the United States should declare war on Great Britain. But others disagreed. They said the United States should not go to war. Madison was president of the United States. He had to decided what to do. Should he ask the U.S. Congress to declare war? Or should he try to keep the peace?

28 EngageNY.org Reading: ELLs ELLs may need additional, supplementary questions to help them answer guiding questions. Supplementary questions can inquire about word meanings as well as larger sections of text. Sequence supplementary questions to support ELLs’ understanding of the main idea. Make it easier for ELLs to answer supplementary questions by:  Defining key words prior to asking the question  Restating phrases or sentences that will help ELLs answer the question Note that supplementary questions are text-dependent! 28 Ask Supplementary Questions

29 EngageNY.org 29 Text Dependent Sequence to support understanding Who was James Madison? How did many Americans feel about the British? What did these Americans want to do? What did the other Americans who disagreed say the United States should not do? Ask Supplementary Questions In 1812 James Madison had a hard choice to make. Many Americans were angry with the British. Some of them were saying the United States should declare war on Great Britain. But others disagreed. They said the United States should not go to war. Madison was president of the United States. He had to decided what to do. Should he ask the U.S. Congress to declare war? Or should he try to keep the peace? Guiding Question: What did Madison have to decide?

30 EngageNY.org 30 Text Dependent Scaffold Questions Inquire about word meanings prior to asking about sentences that use these words The phrase not go to war means the same as ___________________________________. Restate phrases or sentences prior to questioning Other Americans disagreed. What did they say the United States should do? Define key words prior to asking the question To be angry means to be mad at or feel someone has done something wrong. Who were many Americans angry with? Ask Supplementary Questions In 1812 James Madison had a hard choice to make. Many Americans were angry with the British. Some of them were saying the United States should declare war on Great Britain. But others disagreed. They said the United States should not go to war. Madison was president of the United States. He had to decided what to do. Should he ask the U.S. Congress to declare war? Or should he try to keep the peace? Guiding Question: What did Madison have to decide?

31 EngageNY.org Reading: ELLs ELLs may need instruction that helps them understand the task demands of certain question types. ELLs with lower levels of proficiency may also need sentence starters, sentence frames, and/or word banks to help them answer all questions.  Omitted words in sentence frames are words that carry most meaning in the sentence. The level of scaffolding can and should be adjusted depending on ELL’s level of English proficiency.  Emergent level proficiency: Sentence frames and word banks  Intermediate level proficiency: Sentence starters  Advanced level proficiency: Word banks 31 Scaffold Questions at Different Levels of Proficiency

32 EngageNY.org 32 Scaffold Questions at Different Levels of Proficiency keep the peaceBritishideadifficult United Statespresidentangrynot wardifferentdecisiondeclare war Emergent 1. Use your glossary to find the meaning of the phrase “hard choice.” The phrase hard choice means a ________________ ______________. 2. How did many Americans feel about the British? Many Americans were ____________ with the _____________. 3. What did these Americans want to do? They wanted the __________________________ to __________________________ on the British. 4. The text says “Other Americans disagreed.” What does the word disagree mean? Use other words in the text to try to figure out the meaning of ‘disagree.’ HINT: The sentences to help you both have the word war in them. The word disagree means to have a ____________ ______________ or opinion from someone else. 5. What did the other Americans who disagreed say the United States should not do? They said the United States should ____________ go to ___________. _____________________________________________.

33 EngageNY.org 33 Scaffold Questions at Different Levels of Proficiency Intermediate 1. Use your glossary to find the meaning of the phrase “hard choice.” Hard choice means ____________________________________. 2. How did many Americans feel about the British? Many Americans felt ____________________________________. 3. What did these Americans want to do? They wanted __________________________________________. 4. The text says “Other Americans disagreed.” What does the word disagree mean? Use other words in the text to try to figure out the meaning of ‘disagree.’ HINT: The sentences to help you both have the word war in them. The word disagree means ________________________________. 5. What did the other Americans who disagreed say the United States should not do? They said _______________________________________________.

34 EngageNY.org 1.Use your glossary to find the meaning of the phrase “hard choice.” ______________________________________________________. 2. How did many Americans feel about the British? ______________________________________________________. 3. What did these Americans want to do? ______________________________________________________. 4. The text says “Other Americans disagreed.” What does the word disagree mean? Use other words in the text to try to figure out the meaning of ‘disagree.’ HINT: The sentences to help you both have the word war in them. _______________________________________________________. 5. What did the other Americans who disagreed say the United States should not do? _______________________________________________________. 34 Scaffold Questions at Different Levels of Proficiency Advanced peacedeclare warkeep differenceangrydecision

35 EngageNY.org Your Turn Turn to Guiding and Supplementary Questions Activity. Create one text-dependent question and supplementary questions for the guiding question Ensure that the questions are  Aligned to a reading standard  Text dependent  Sequenced to support understanding Create emergent-level scaffolding for responses (i.e., sentence frames and a word bank) for each of your supplementary questions. 35

36 EngageNY.org WATCH VIDEO: SUPPORTING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN CKLA Identifying Accommodations 36

37 EngageNY.org ELL Support In Action Turn to Video Capture Sheet Watch Clip & look for scaffolds  defining target words in context  connecting vocabulary to gestures & visuals  group practice that includes repetition of target (sounds, letters, words, phrases, & concepts)  modeling that includes naming actions  other What are the scaffolds that have been used? What scaffolds appear in the Core Knowledge lesson that might be incorporated into this lesson? 37 Video clip:

38 EngageNY.org ELL Support In Action Watch Clip again & based on this presentation note additional scaffolds that might support ELLs  vocabulary  guiding and supplementary questions  additional scaffolding for responses  partner work  other 38 Video clip:

39 EngageNY.org Paired Verbal Sharing Person A: Share scaffolds in video (60 seconds) Person B: Describe scaffolding methods in Core Knowledge lesson that are not in video (60 seconds) A & B: Open exchange (90 seconds) 39 How do these methods support learning for all students? For ELLs?

40 EngageNY.org Paired Verbal Sharing Person A: Share scaffolds you learned during presentation that might be incorporated into this lesson to support ELLs ( 60 seconds) Person B: Add additional scaffolds not mentioned by Person A (60 seconds) A & B: Open exchange (90 seconds) 40 How do these scaffolds support learning for all students? For ELLs?

41 EngageNY.org Paired Verbal Sharing A and B: Review second part of model lesson A & B: Open exchange (180 seconds) How do these scaffolds compare to those you came up with? 41

42 EngageNY.org Table Rounds Create groups of 4 at your table. Decide who is going first. Each person should share: o 1 scaffold & o the instructional implication First person will point to the person who will go second. Continue this pattern. Stop when you have finished the round. 42

43 EngageNY.org A FOCUS ON ROUTINES IN THE SKILLS STRAND Creating Scaffolds/Accommodations 43

44 EngageNY.org Skills Routine: Mirror, Mirror What target words should be defined in context What vocabulary should be supported by gestures & visuals What target words should students be encouraged to repeat. What should be explicitly modeled? 44 review/ /4b2904de78

45 EngageNY.org Skills Routine: Mirror, Mirror 45 T – The first sound you will learn is the /m/ sound. T – We make sounds by putting parts of our mouth like our lips and tongue into special position while breathing out air. T – Distributes handheld mirror to each student. T – Use your mirror to observe the shape our your mouth as you say /m/ T – Is your mouth open or closed when you say this sound? T – Are your lips closed or opened when you say /m/? T –Watch your mouths as you echo these words_____. What target words should be defined in context What vocabulary should be supported by gestures & visuals What target sounds should students be encouraged to repeat. What should be explicitly modeled?

46 EngageNY.org Mirror, Mirror Procedure: T – The first sound you will learn is the /m/ sound. T – We make sounds by putting parts of our mouth like our lips and tongue into special position while breathing out air. T – Distributes handheld mirror to each student. T – Use your mirror to observe the shape our your mouth as you say /m/ T – Is your mouth open (demonstrate an open mouth) or closed (demonstrate a closed mouth) when you say this sound? T – Are your lips closed (demonstrate) or opened (demonstrate)when you say /m/? T – I will say another sound. Watch your mouths, lips, teeth and tongue as you echo these words_____. Sometimes you can’t see your teeth or your tongue. 46 Modeling

47 EngageNY.org Mirror, Mirror Procedure: T – The first sound you will learn is the /m/ sound. T – We make sounds by putting parts of our mouth like our lips and tongue into special position while breathing out air. T – Distributes handheld mirror to each student. T – Use your mirror to observe the shape our your mouth as you say /m/ T – Is your mouth open (demonstrate an open mouth) or closed (demonstrate a closed mouth) when you say this sound? T – Are your lips closed (demonstrate) or opened (demonstrate)when you say /m/? T – I will say another sound. Repeat or echo the sound after me. Watch your mouths, lips, teeth and tongue as you echo these words_____. Sometimes you can’t see your teeth or your tongue. 47 Defining

48 EngageNY.org Mirror, Mirror Procedure: T – The first sound you will learn is the /m/ sound. T – We make sounds by putting parts of our mouth(point to mouth) like our lips (point to lips) and tongue (point to tongue) into special position while breathing out air. T – Distributes handheld mirror to each student. T – Use your mirror to observe the shape our your mouth as you say /m/ T – Is your mouth open (demonstrate an open mouth) or closed (demonstrate a closed mouth) when you say this sound? T – Are your lips closed (demonstrate) or opened (demonstrate) when you say /m/? T – I will say another sound. Repeat or echo the sound after me. Now look in the mirror. Watch your mouths (point to mouth), lips (point to lips), teeth (point to teeth) and tongue (point to tongue) as you echo these words_____. Sometimes you can’t see your teeth or your tongue. 48 Gestures

49 EngageNY.org Identifying Scaffolds in Skills Routines Your task: 1.Stand & find a partner 2.Select 1 routine (workbook pp. 23 – 35) 3.Identify scaffolds/ accommodations that can be provided to support ELLs. 4. Include a rationale describing how your scaffold supports ELLs. 49

50 EngageNY.org Possible Scaffolds Reference this resource to identify additional scaffolds that can be made to Skills Routines in support of ELLs. Note: We are going to share our scaffolds at the end of the session through a gallery walk 50

51 EngageNY.org Reflection What are you currently doing to support ELLs in your classroom? Working with Readers: What have you learned that you can apply in your classroom? Working with Lesson Routines: What have you learned that you can apply in your classroom? 51


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