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1 Pertemuan 9 Hardware: CPU Matakuliah: T0604-Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Tahun: 2008 Versi: 2.0/0.0 Williams, B.K, Stacy C. Sawyer (2007). Using Information.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Pertemuan 9 Hardware: CPU Matakuliah: T0604-Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Tahun: 2008 Versi: 2.0/0.0 Williams, B.K, Stacy C. Sawyer (2007). Using Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Pertemuan 9 Hardware: CPU Matakuliah: T0604-Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Tahun: 2008 Versi: 2.0/0.0 Williams, B.K, Stacy C. Sawyer (2007). Using Information Technology: A Practical Introduction to Computers & Communications. Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York. ISBN-13: 978-0- 07-110768-6 Sumber: Chapter 4. Hardware: The CPU & Storage, p.189

2 2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : menjelaskan apa yg dimaksud dg Central Processing Unit, komponen- komponennya, dan cara kerjanya (C2)

3 3 Outline Materi Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility The System Unit: The Basics More on the System Unit

4 4-4 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility Vacuum Tubes vs. Transistors –Vacuum tubes were the original logic gates of computers –They looked like light bulbs, were hot, and burned out like them too –The original transistors were 1/100 th the size of vacuum tubes (less power, faster, more reliable too) Transistors vs. Integrated Circuits –Compare 1955’s 45 lb “portable” color TV to today’s 7 oz Casio 2.3 inch color TV –One integrated circuit contains thousands of transistors

5 4-5 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility Semiconductor –A material whose electrical properties are intermediate between a good conductor and a nonconductor of electricity –Perfect substrate to overlay complex circuits on –Microchips are made from semiconductors –Contain millions of microminiature integrated circuits

6 4-6 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility Microprocessor –The miniaturized circuitry of an entire computer processor on a single chip –Contains the CPU, which processes data Microcontroller or Embedded Computer –A microprocessor that was modified for use in a machine that isn’t a computer

7 4-7 The System Unit: The Basics Binary System: the basic unit of computing –Uses just two numbers: 0 and 1 –All data and program instructions in the computer are represented as binary –Bit: each 0 or 1 is a bit –Byte: a group of 8 bits –Kilobyte: ~1,000 (1,024) bytes –Megabyte: ~1 Million (1,048,576) bytes –Gigabyte: ~1 Billion (1,073,741,824) bytes –Terabyte: ~ 1 Trillion (1,009,511,627,576) bytes –Petabyte: ~ 1 quadrillion bytes –Exabyte: ~ 1 quintillion bytes –All the printed material in the world is ~ 5 exabytes

8 4-8 The System Unit: The Basics Binary coding schemes assign a unique binary code to each letter –EBCDIC Requires 8 bits per character Used for IBM mainframes –ASCII Requires 7 or 8 bits per character, depending on the version 8 bit Extended ASCII provides 256 characters Used for PCs, Unix hosts, Macs –Unicode Requires 16 bits per character Handles 65,536 characters

9 4-9 The System Unit: The Basics Error Checking: Parity Bits –Used in modems & communications to verify correctness –One check bit is added to 7 bit byte –The check bit is defined as either odd or even –For odd parity, if the data sent is correct, the parity bit plus the first 7 data bits is an odd number –For even parity, if the data sent is correct, the parity bit plus the first 7 data bits is an even number Discussion Question: If the 7 data bits are 1101011, and the modem is sending odd parity, what should the parity bit be set to? Answer: Since the data bits add up to 5, an odd number, the parity bit will be 0.

10 4-10 The System Unit: The Basics Machine Language –A binary-type programming language built into the CPU that is run directly by the computer –Each CPU type has its own machine language Language Translators –System programs convert the programming instructions for you into machine language

11 4-11 The System Unit: The Basics

12 4-12 The System Unit: The Basics Computer Terms Names 1.Bay 2.Power Supply 3.Surge Protector 4.Voltage Regulator 5.UPS 6.Motherboard 7.Microprocessor 8.Chipset Definitions 1.Shell or opening used for the installation of electrical equipment. 2.This converts AC to DC to run the computer. 3.Protects the computer from being damaged by power spikes. Plug your computer into one. 4.Protects a computer against brownouts or low power conditions that happen a lot in summer. 5.Uninterruptible Power Supply. Battery-operated device that provides power for a time when there is a blackout. 6.The main system board of the computer. 7.The miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor. 8.Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that control information flow between the microprocessor and other system components connected to the motherboard.

13 4-13 The System Unit: The Basics The CPU –Older CPUs processing speeds are in MegaHertz 1 MHz = 1 Million ticks per second –Current CPUs processing speeds are in GigaHertz 1 GHz = 1 Billion ticks per second –The faster a CPU runs, the more power it consumes, and the more heat it generates

14 4-14 The System Unit: The Basics The CPU Continued –Mainframe and minicomputer speed is measured in MIPS MIPS stands for millions of instructions per second Workstations perform at 100 MIPS or more Mainframes perform at 200 – 1,200 MIPS –Supercomputer processing speed is measured in flops Flops stands for floating point operations per second IBM’s Blue Gene/L cranks out 70.72 teraflops (tera = trillion) per second

15 4-15 More on the System Unit Parts of the CPU Name 1.Word size 2.Control unit 3.Arithmetic Logic Unit 4.Registers 5.Buses Definition 1.The number of bits the processor can process at any one time 2.The part of the CPU that deciphers instructions and carries them out 3.The ALU performs mathematical and logical operations and controls the speed of them 4.High-speed storage areas that temporarily store data during processing 5.Electrical data roadways used to transmit bits within the CPU and between CPU and other motherboard components

16 4-16 More on the System Unit How Memory Works Memory Chip 1.RAM 2.ROM 3.CMOS 4.Flash Explanation 1.Random Access Memory chips are volatile and hold: a.Software instructions b.Data before & after the CPU processes it 2.Read only memory a.Cannot be written on or erased without special equipment b.Are loaded at factory with fixed start-up instructions 3.Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor a.Powered by a battery b.Contains time, date, calendar, boot password 4.Nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed more than once a.Doesn’t require a battery b.Used in newer PCs for BIOS instructions

17 4-17 More on the System Unit Types of RAM RAM Types 1.DRAM 2.SDRAM 3.SRAM 4.DDR-SDRAM 5.SIMM 6.DIMM Explanation 1.Dynamic RAM must be constantly refreshed by the CPU or it loses its contents 2.Synchronous Dynamic RAM is synchronized by the system clock and is much faster than DRAM 3.Static RAM is faster than DRAM and retains its contents without having to be refreshed by CPU 4.Double-data rate synchronous dynamic RAM 5.Single Inline Memory Module has RAM chips on only one side a.FPM is fast page mode type b.EDO is extended data output; is faster than FPM 6.Dual Inline Memory Module has chips on both sides

18 4-18 More on the System Unit Speeding up Processing The CPU works much faster than RAM –So it could sit there waiting for information –Cache temporarily stores instructions and data that the processor uses frequently to speed up processing Level 1 cache is part of the microprocessor –Holds 8 to 256 kb –Faster than Level 2 cache Level 2 cache is SRAM external cache –Holds 64 kb to 2 Mb Level 3 cache is on the motherboard –Comes on very high-end computers

19 4-19 More on the System Unit Speeding up Processing Method 1.Interleaving 2.Bursting 3.Pipelining 4.Superscalar Architecture 5.Hyperthreading Description 1.CPU alternates communications between two or more memory banks 2.CPU grabs a block of data from memory instead of retrieving one piece at a time 3.CPU doesn’t wait for one instruction to complete before fetching its next instruction 4.The computer can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle 5.A technique used in superscalar architecture in which the OS treats the microprocessor as though it is two microprocessors

20 4-20 More on the System Unit Ports Port Type 1.Serial Port 2.Parallel Port 3.SCSI Port 4.USB Port Description 1.Used to transmit slow data over long distances a.Sends data sequentially, one bit at a time b.Used to connect keyboard, mouse, monitors, dial-up modems 2.For transmitting fast data over short distances a.Transmits 8 bytes simultaneously b.Connects printers, external disks, backups 3.Small Computer System Interface a.Connects up to 7 devices in a daisy chain b.Transmits data 32 bits at a time 4.Universal Serial Bus can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices in a daisy chain

21 4-21 More on the System Unit USB Goals –Be low-cost –Be able to connect lots of devices –Be hot swappable People hate rebooting because it takes time Hot swapping means a device can be connected/disconnected without rebooting –Permit plug and play Devices are automatically configured when they are installed – no need to download new drivers

22 4-22 More on the System Unit USB Continued Standards –USB 1.1 – the original standard –USB 2.0 – the current standard for new PCs –USB On The Go (OTG) – currently under development Connectors –A – in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0 –B – in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0 –Mini B – in USB Type 2.0 –Mini A – in USB OTG used for smaller peripherals like cellphones

23 4-23 More on the System Unit Specialized Expansion Ports Port Type 1.FireWire 2.MIDI 3.IrDA 4.Bluetooth 5.Ethernet Description 1.Intended for devices working with lots of data a.Used for camcorders, DVD players, TVs b.Handles up to 400 megabits per second 2.Musical Instrument Digital Interface a.Connects musical instruments b.Used in creating, recording, editing, performing music 3.Infrared Data Association: Infrared ports used to make a cableless connection 4.Uses short-range radio waves that transmit up to 30 ft a.Connects computers to printers, keyboards, headsets, even refrigerators b.Named after King Harald Bluetooth, son of Gorm, who united the Norway and Denmark. Ruled 910-940 A.D. 5.The standard for linking all devices in a Local Area Network

24 4-24 More on the System Unit Expansion Cards

25 4-25 More on the System Unit Expansion Buses Bus 1.PCI bus 2.AGP Bus Description 1.Peripheral Component Interconnect a.For high-speed connections b.32 or 64 bits wide c.Typically used for sound cards, modems, high-speed network cards 2.Accelerated Graphics Port 1.Twice the speed of PCI bus 2.For Video and 3-D graphics cards

26 26 Kesimpulan

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