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The Hero in World Literature. Part I: What makes a hero?

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1 The Hero in World Literature

2 Part I: What makes a hero?

3 Overview Students will explore the distinction between a hero and an idol. Based on collaboratively established criteria for heroism and characteristics of heroes, students will select, read about, and report on a real life hero. Students will research biographical information and identify how their hero matches the criteria and characteristics of a hero. Students will explore the distinction between a hero and an idol. Based on collaboratively established criteria for heroism and characteristics of heroes, students will select, read about, and report on a real life hero. Students will research biographical information and identify how their hero matches the criteria and characteristics of a hero.

4 hero and idol hero and idol

5 Webster's dictionary: Hero — Hero — a person of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his or her brave deeds and noble qualities.a person of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his or her brave deeds and noble qualities. Idol — a celebrity, someone well-known or famous a celebrity, someone well-known or famous any person or thing regarded with blind admiration, adoration, or devotionany person or thing regarded with blind admiration, adoration, or devotion a representation or symbol of an object of worshipa representation or symbol of an object of worship

6 Think and Share 1. What is heroism? 2. What qualities or characteristics do heroes have?

7 Collaborative Circle Map Heroism is....

8 Everyone is necessarily the hero of his own life story. Everyone is necessarily the hero of his own life story. Barth, John Some Quotes about Heroism

9 “In our world of big names, curiously, our true heroes tend to be anonymous. In this life of illusion and quasi-illusion, the person of solid virtues who can be admired for something more substantial than his well-knownness often proves to be the unsung hero: the teacher, the nurse, the mother, the honest cop, the hard worker at lonely, underpaid, unglamorous, unpublicized jobs.” “In our world of big names, curiously, our true heroes tend to be anonymous. In this life of illusion and quasi-illusion, the person of solid virtues who can be admired for something more substantial than his well-knownness often proves to be the unsung hero: the teacher, the nurse, the mother, the honest cop, the hard worker at lonely, underpaid, unglamorous, unpublicized jobs.” Boorstin, Daniel J. Boorstin, Daniel J.

10 “The hero is one who kindles a great light in the world, who sets up blazing torches in the dark streets of life for men to see by.” “The hero is one who kindles a great light in the world, who sets up blazing torches in the dark streets of life for men to see by.” Felix Adler

11 “It doesn't take a hero to order men into battle. It takes a hero to be one of those men who goes into battle.” “It doesn't take a hero to order men into battle. It takes a hero to be one of those men who goes into battle.” Norman Schwarzkopf

12 A hero is an ordinary individual who finds the strength to persevere and endure in spite of overwhelming obstacles.” A hero is an ordinary individual who finds the strength to persevere and endure in spite of overwhelming obstacles.” Christopher Reeve Christopher Reeve

13 Poems When Ur Hero Falls when ur hero falls from grace all fairy tales r uncovered myths exposed and pain magnified the greatest pain discovered u taught me 2 be strong but im confused 2 c u so weak u said never 2 give up and it hurts 2 c u welcome defeat

14 when ur hero falls so do the stars and so does the perception of tomorrow without my hero there is only me alone 2 deal with my sorrow your heart ceases 2 work and your soul is not happy at all what r u expected 2 do when ur only hero falls when ur hero falls so do the stars and so does the perception of tomorrow without my hero there is only me alone 2 deal with my sorrow your heart ceases 2 work and your soul is not happy at all what r u expected 2 do when ur only hero falls Written by Tupac Shakur

15 A Hero A hero thinks of others before they think of themselves A hero will die to protect A hero can be of any age, any color A hero can be man, woman or child A hero is courageous, loving and brave A hero will never complain

16 A hero can be made in one act of compassion Or years of tender loving care Some hero's are remembered, whilst many are left forgotten Hero's are angels in disguise, saving precious innocent lives A hero can be made in one act of compassion Or years of tender loving care Some hero's are remembered, whilst many are left forgotten Hero's are angels in disguise, saving precious innocent lives (Dedicated to the memory of Pvt. Steven Freund & All fallen men of Iraq) Nicola Burkett (Dedicated to the memory of Pvt. Steven Freund & All fallen men of Iraq) Nicola Burkett

17 Go to Heroism In Action: Introduction Read aloud the site description on the page. Discuss what the author says about heroism. Listen to the opening video clip. What characteristics named here match ones we’ve identified? Does this video presents new ones that should be added? Read aloud the site description on the page. Discuss what the author says about heroism. Listen to the opening video clip. What characteristics named here match ones we’ve identified? Does this video presents new ones that should be added? Go to Heroism In Action: Introduction Read aloud the site description on the page. Discuss what the author says about heroism. Listen to the opening video clip. What characteristics named here match ones we’ve identified? Does this video presents new ones that should be added? Read aloud the site description on the page. Discuss what the author says about heroism. Listen to the opening video clip. What characteristics named here match ones we’ve identified? Does this video presents new ones that should be added?

18 add to class circle map Heroism is.... Heroism is....

19 Brainstorm a list of Brainstorm a list of “Heroes around Us"

20 You will be selecting a particular hero to read and report about. Possible resources : Heroism in Action Heroism in Action My Hero My Hero My Hero: Heroes in the News /index.asp My Hero: Heroes in the News /index.asp /index.asp /index.asp TIME: Heroes and Icons. TIME: Heroes and Icons. You will be selecting a particular hero to read and report about. Possible resources : Heroism in Action Heroism in Action My Hero My Hero My Hero: Heroes in the News /index.asp My Hero: Heroes in the News /index.asp /index.asp /index.asp TIME: Heroes and Icons. TIME: Heroes and Icons.

21 Mythical Heroes The concept of an archetype of the standard hero and the hero's quest (monomyth) is common across all cultures. Expounded on by Joseph Campbell, it is evident that despite vastly different peoples and beliefs there are remarkably similar ideas of what a hero represents as illustrated by the hero cycle. The concept of an archetype of the standard hero and the hero's quest (monomyth) is common across all cultures. Expounded on by Joseph Campbell, it is evident that despite vastly different peoples and beliefs there are remarkably similar ideas of what a hero represents as illustrated by the hero cycle.

22 Quest Myth-Heroic Cycle Home/Birth Call to Adventure Hero Crosses the Threshold of Danger Hero is Confronted by Enemy(ies) Hero Receives Supernatural Assistance Hero has Series of Adventures Hero Conquers Evil (with the aid of the supernatural) Hero Crosses Threshold of Safety Hero Returns Home

23 Joseph Campbell’s 12 Steps of a Hero Heroes played a crucial role in Joseph Campbell’s studies of mythology. Heroes were important to Campbell because, to him, they conveyed universal truths about one's life and role in society. The monomyth (often referred to as the hero's journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many myths from around the world. This universal pattern was described by Joseph Campbell in his book The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949). He identified 12 steps common in hero stories. Heroes played a crucial role in Joseph Campbell’s studies of mythology. Heroes were important to Campbell because, to him, they conveyed universal truths about one's life and role in society. The monomyth (often referred to as the hero's journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many myths from around the world. This universal pattern was described by Joseph Campbell in his book The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949). He identified 12 steps common in hero stories.

24 In the first stage of the story, the hero leaves a familiar place to journey to a new world. Heroes are sometimes born in strange circumstances. In some cases the birth may involve magical spells and beings. In others the birth simply entails miracles or mystery of a more mortal version. It is common to have clues or predictions of the great things to come during the hero's childhood. In the first stage of the story, the hero leaves a familiar place to journey to a new world. Heroes are sometimes born in strange circumstances. In some cases the birth may involve magical spells and beings. In others the birth simply entails miracles or mystery of a more mortal version. It is common to have clues or predictions of the great things to come during the hero's childhood. Step 1. The Ordinary World

25 Step 2: The Call to Adventure While all heroes are "born" into the role of hero, it is not until they receive a sign or a call to fulfill their destinies that the Myth Cycle truly begins. While all heroes are "born" into the role of hero, it is not until they receive a sign or a call to fulfill their destinies that the Myth Cycle truly begins.

26 Step 3: Refusal of The Call to Adventure When call is given, the future hero may refuse to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, or a sense of inadequacy. When call is given, the future hero may refuse to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, or a sense of inadequacy.

27 Step 4: Mentor/Supernatural Aid Often, once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his or her guide or magical helper appears, or becomes known. Often, once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his or her guide or magical helper appears, or becomes known.

28 Step 5: The Crossing of the First Threshold This is the point where the person leaves the known limits of his or her world and ventures into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known. This is the point where the person leaves the known limits of his or her world and ventures into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known.

29 Step 6: Tests, Allies, & Enemies All heroes must face (and conquer) obstacles which stand in their way to fulfillment of their quest and serve to test the hero's loyalty and abilities. They can arrive in the form of physical challenges, emotional or spiritual temptations, or mental tests. From classic tales of adventure to contemporary adventure films, heroes must face an enemy or enemies. All heroes must face (and conquer) obstacles which stand in their way to fulfillment of their quest and serve to test the hero's loyalty and abilities. They can arrive in the form of physical challenges, emotional or spiritual temptations, or mental tests. From classic tales of adventure to contemporary adventure films, heroes must face an enemy or enemies.

30 Step 7: Approach to the Innermost Cave The hero approaches a fearful place which is often underground and may represent a cave. This often occurs in the enemies’ territory. The hero approaches a fearful place which is often underground and may represent a cave. This often occurs in the enemies’ territory.

31 Step 8: The Supreme Ordeal The hero has to face his biggest challenge and confrontation. He is often brought to the brink of death in battle. The hero has to face his biggest challenge and confrontation. He is often brought to the brink of death in battle.

32 Step 9: The Reward Something keeps heroes going in spite of all the obstacles they face. Every true hero's journey involves an ultimate quest or the ultimate pay-off. Sometimes it's even treasure or gold, but usually it's something a bit more intangible, if the hero is to be revered as a hero. It can be physical, emotional, or spiritual. Something keeps heroes going in spite of all the obstacles they face. Every true hero's journey involves an ultimate quest or the ultimate pay-off. Sometimes it's even treasure or gold, but usually it's something a bit more intangible, if the hero is to be revered as a hero. It can be physical, emotional, or spiritual.

33 Step 10: The Road Back The hero must make the journey home. Many times the enemy will chase him or other obstacles are present. The hero must make the journey home. Many times the enemy will chase him or other obstacles are present.

34 Step 11: Resurrection Sometimes the hero has to be “reborn” before he can enter back into the ordinary world and his home. This may occur as a second facing of death. Sometimes the hero has to be “reborn” before he can enter back into the ordinary world and his home. This may occur as a second facing of death.

35 Step 12: Return with the Elixir Once the hero fulfills the quest he has set out to accomplish, he must return to the Ordinary or Real World. Unless something is brought back, the hero has to repeat the challenge. The elixir may be a magic potion, a treasure, love, freedom, or new knowledge. Once the hero fulfills the quest he has set out to accomplish, he must return to the Ordinary or Real World. Unless something is brought back, the hero has to repeat the challenge. The elixir may be a magic potion, a treasure, love, freedom, or new knowledge.

36 Selections The mythical heroes we will be investigating include: Perseus Moses Moses Superman Superman King Arthur Sundiata

37 Perseus ndex.html ndex.html ndex.html ndex.html

38 Moses /index.htm /index.htm /index.htm /index.htm

39 Part III Creating a Mythical/Super Hero You will be creating your own hero. Choose a name and design an outfit and accessories. Include a side-kick and a catch phrase for your hero. Then use at least 6 of Campbell’s 12 steps to outline your hero’s journey. Prepare a presentation of your hero.

40 Zits By Jerry Scott and Jim Borgman © 2007 Zits Partnership. This feature is presented with the permission of King Features Syndicate, Inc. and is furnished solely for personal, non-commercial use. Redistribution in whole or part prohibited.


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