Presentation on theme: "Objective: To examine the causes of the Spanish – American War. The Battleship Maine."— Presentation transcript:
Objective: To examine the causes of the Spanish – American War. The Battleship Maine
Pan-American UnionPan-American Union – a group of nations organized to solve the problems of the Western Hemisphere War With Spain
Jos é Mar tí Jos é Mar tí - Cu ban patr iot that wro te abo ut the nee d for Cu ban ind epe nde nce. He die d figh ting the Spa nis h in José Martí José Martí - Cuban patriot that wrote about the need for Cuban independence. He died fighting the Spanish in La GuantanameraLa Guantanamera, Cuba's most famous song is based upon Jose Martí's poem Versos Sencillos. Versos Sencillos José Martí
José Martí - Quotations On Liberty: “Like bones to the human body, the axle to the wheel, the wing to the bird, and the air to the wing, so is liberty the essence of life. Whatever is done without it is imperfect.” On Morality and Human Behavior: “Just as he who gives his life to serve a great idea is admirable, he who avails himself of a great idea to serve his personal hopes of glory and power is abominable, even if he too risks his life. To give one's life is a right only when one gives it unselfishly.”
General Valeriano WeylerGeneral Valeriano Weyler – Spanish governor of Cuba that used brutal tactics against the Cubans. He was responsible for detaining over 500,000 Cubans and killing over 100,000. * Americans sympathized with the Cuban desire for freedom.
- Joseph Pulitzer’s World and William Randolph Hearst’s Journal competed to publish the most grisly stories of Spanish cruelty. Joseph Pulitzer’sWorldWilliam Randolph Hearst’s Journal Yellow Journalism (left) Joseph Pulitzer and (right) William Randolph Hearst
bold headlines and articlesheadlines Examples of Yellow Journalism:
· political cartoons that portrayed the Spanish as bloodthirsty.political cartoons
· Joseph Pulitzer once stated, “You supply me the photos, I’ll supply you the war.”
- President McKinley, however, wanted to avoid war with Spain.President McKinley
Remember the Maine! · President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American citizens and property.
· An explosion destroyed the Maine killing 260 U.S. sailors.
· Spain was accused of destroying the Maine, even though there was no proof! · On April 25, 1898, Congress declared war on Spain. Congress declared war
· Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish navy in the Philippines after only six hours of battle. Spanish-American War (1898) The Philippines Commodore George Dewey ( )
Brave Dewey and His Men - Audio
Objective: To examine the results of the Spanish – American War. U.S. soldiers in a trench near Manila, the Philippines, during the Spanish – American War. (1898)
· The Philippine capital, Manila, was captured with the help of Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.
· Theodore Roosevelt led a volunteer regiment known as the Rough Riders to victory at the battle of San Juan Hill. Cuba Col Roosevelt in Rough Rider uniform. October 26, 1898
Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898
· Spain surrendered after their fleet was destroyed two days later in Santiago Bay. The torpedo was a new, highly feared weapon system which saw very little use during the war. In spite of all of the amazing claims of its abilities, the Spanish American War saw no vessel on either side sunk through the use of a torpedo. However, at the battle of Santiago, the Spanish cruiser VIZCAYA apparently suffered a torpedo hit, putting the ship out of action.SantiagoVIZCAYA
2. The U.S. was given control of the islands of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. Results of the War 1. Cuba was given its independence. 3. Spain received $20 million dollars. "The war of the United States with Spain was very brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world-wide meaning." --Henry Cabot Lodge
“School Begins” - In the back of the classroom students representing California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii looking as if they would rather not be there.
“The American Policy” Miss Columbia, teacher at the Liberty School, is ringing a bell. Uncle Sam, switch in hand, is dragging by the ear a Filipino boy in loincloth and amulet. Boys from Hawaii, Cuba, and Puerto Rico are standing around watching.
Ruling Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines Ruling Cuba The Teller Amendment gave Cuba their independence in 1899 at the conclusion of the Spanish – American War.
- gave the U.S. control of the naval base in Guantanamo Bay · Cuba was forced to sign the Platt Amendment, which:Platt Amendment - limited Cuba’s right to make treaties and borrow money - allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba
Puerto Ricans were given American citizenship in Ruling Puerto Rico The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Ricans their own government.Foraker Act Puerto Rico's official flag was adopted in 1952 on the same day that Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. The red symbolizes blood, the white symbolizes individual liberty and rights, and the blue triangle symbolizes the three branches of the republican government (and also the sky and coastal waters of this beautiful Caribbean island).
The Philippines were finally given their independence in 1946.independence War in the Philippines Filipinos were angry with the U.S. for refusing to grant them independence. Therefore, Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops continued to fight against the U.S.Emilio Aguinaldo The war ended in 1901 when Aguinaldo was captured.Aguinaldo was captured Over 4,000 Americans and 220,000 Filipinos died in the war, including 20,000 Filipino soldiers.
Objective: To examine the construction of the Panama Canal.
France, led by engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, began construction on the canal in 1881.Ferdinand de Lesseps About $287,000,000 had been spent and 20,000 men had died, mostly of yellow fever and malaria, before the French gave up. Panama Canal Ferdinand de Lesseps
President Theodore Roosevelt stated in a speech about the Panama Canal, "No single great material work which remains to be undertaken on this continent is as of such consequence to the American people."President Theodore Roosevelt
Therefore, the U.S. encouraged the Panamanian people to revolt against Colombia.revolt against Colombia Colombia refused to grant the U.S. permission to complete the canal project.
1905 fumigation car eradicating the mosquitoes - Panama City
Using mainly black workers from the West Indies, the U.S. finished the canal in Arrival of SS. Ancon with 1500 laborers from Barbados at the Cristobal Port in Colon, Panama
TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904) The Panama Canal – Live Cameras
Objective: To examine the U.S. domination over Latin America.
Constable of the World
* The U.S. used the Roosevelt Corollary frequently, angering Latin American countries. Policing Latin America Roosevelt Corollary claimed the right of the U.S. to intervene in Latin America to preserve law and order extension of the Monroe Doctrine established by Pres. Roosevelt in 1904
Dollar Diplomacy – President Taft’s policy of encouraging Americans to invest in Latin America U. S. Global Investments & Investments in Latin America, 1914
Reasons Dominican Republic to control their finances, help them pay their debts, and keep the peace Nicaragua to restore order after a revolution and to protect U.S. businesses Haiti to restore order after years of anarchy Honduras to protect U.S. businesses during civil war Country Occupied Years
Troubles in Mexico Mexico arrested several U.S. sailors in 1914 and Pres. Wilson sent the navy to occupy Veracruz. "Formal raising of first flag of U.S. / Veracruz 2 P.M. April 27, 1914"
Generals Alvaro Obregon, Pancho Villa and John J. Pershing, Ft. Bliss, El Paso, Texas, Aug. 27, 1914.
In 1916, Mexican Gen. Pancho Villa killed 18 Americans at the Santa Ysabel massacre and 17 Americans in Columbus, New Mexico.
Pancho Villa’s 1916 attack on Columbus, New Mexico
After the raid on Columbus, N.M.
U.S. General John Pershing was sent to Mexico in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Villa.
Statue of Pancho Villa, La Buffa, Mexico
Using mainly black workers from the West Indies, the U.S. finished the canal in 1914.