3Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) Famous Family Tree Distinguished, rich, privileged, famous scientific and literary familyGrandfather Thomas Huxley was a biologist who favored Darwinism and lectured on it. Coined the word “agnostic” and made important evolution discoveries about jellyfish.Father Leonard Huxley was a biographer, editor, and poet. Well-known as theorist about education.Mother Julia Arnold was the niece of poet Matthew Arnold, who lamented the loss of religion in the world.
4Aldous Huxley When Huxley was fourteen his mother died. Huxley suffered from an eye disease at 16 and became for a period of about 18 months totally blind.Special glasses and one eye recovered; also learned Braille.Unable to pursue his chosen career as a doctor/scientist - or fight in World WarBecame a writer
5Aldous Huxley Lived in Italy for most of his adult life. Hated conformity and denounced orthodox attitudesDramatized intellectual debate in fictionDiscussed philosophical and social topics in a volume of essaysCritical of Western civilization in the 1930s.Brave New World (1932), satirical account of an inhumane society controlled by technology.
6Aldous Huxley Philosopher, Mystic, Guru Huxley's distress at what spiritual bankruptcy of the modern world led him toward mysticism.Moved to southern California in 1937 hoping it would help his eyesight.Had surgery; did improve his sight.Became a Hindu and a vegetarianExperimented with the hallucinogenic drug, mescalineBecame a hippie guruRemembered as a moral philosopher who used fiction as a vehicle for philosophical ideas
7Brave New World: Context Written in 1931 when people longed for a newer, simpler, more secure world following stock market crash and drought in America.
8Brave New World: Characteristics SATIRE Uses ridicule, humor, and wit to criticize and provoke change in human nature and institutions.Formal satire speaks directly to the reader or to a character in the work Horatian satire ridicules gently Juvenalian satire derides its subjects harshly and bitterly.
9Brave New World :Thematic Ideas State control over new and powerful medical, biological, and psychological technologiesDifference between science and technology: science searches for truth; technology applies, and often exploits, science
10Brave New World: Thematic Ideas Excesses and shallowness of contemporary culture.Modern class structureIndividuality versus mass mentalityHappiness versus complacencySocial conditioningBelongingness
11After Brave New WorldEric Blair, Huxley’s student, went on to write 1984 under the penname, George Orwell.Huxley wrote a series of essays about Brave New World called Brave New World Revisited in 1960s.Huxley said he wished he’d written a more open-ended conclusion to Brave New World in which John finds a middle path between extremes.
12BNW Study Questions: 1-31. Who is the D.H.C.? 2. What is Bokanovsky's Process? 3. Explain why Bokanovsky's Process is one of the major instruments of social stability. 4. What is the point of conditioning? 5. Why are the babies being conditioned to hate books and flowers? 6. How is the conditioning reinforced? 7. What is the name of the deity in this world? 8. Why is "mother" such an obscene word? 9. How is Bernard Marx different from his associates? 10. Why does Lenina want to go out with Bernard? 11. What is soma?
13BNW Quiz: 1-3Take a few minutes to study for the quiz.
14BNW Individual Activity When finished with the quiz, write an answer to the following prompt for discussion:Characterize Aldous Huxley's style of writing.
15BNW Study Questions: 4-6 1. How are Bernard and Helmholtz alike? 1. How are Bernard and Helmholtz alike?2. What is a Solidarity Service?3. Why is Bernard unable to feel the oneness with his group?4. How does Bernard want to spend his dates with Lenina?5. Why does the Director threaten to send Bernard to Iceland?Discussion: Make a list of technical details given in the story and be ready to discuss their effect on the story.
16BNW Study Questions: 7-91. How are Linda and John different from the other savages?2. Why is Lenina disgusted by Linda?3. Why do the women whip Linda?4. What things does Mitsima teach John?5. What book does Pope bring for John?6. Why do Bernard and John both feel alone?7. To whom does John liken Lenina?Discussion: Compare and contrast Linda and Lenina.Be prepared to discuss the implications of the name "savage" and the appropriateness of the connotations.
17BNW Study Questions: 7-9/10-13 1. How are Linda and John different from the other savages? 2. Why is Lenina disgusted by Linda? 3. Why do the women whip Linda? 4. What things does Mitsima teach John? 5. What book does Pope bring for John? 6. Why do Bernard and John both feel alone? 7. To whom does John liken Lenina? Discussion: Compare and contrast Linda and Lenina. Be prepared to discuss the implications of the name "savage" and the appropriateness of the connotations.1. How does Bernard humiliate the Director?2. Why is everyone interested in John but not Linda?3. How does Linda spend her time?4. Why does John throw up?5. What other "civilized" customs disgust John?6. Why does John refuse to come to the party?7. How does John's refusal affect Bernard?8. How does Bernard react to his downfall?
18BNW Study Questions: 10-131. How does Bernard humiliate the Director? 2. Why is everyone interested in John but not Linda? 3. How does Linda spend her time? 4. Why does John throw up? 5. What other "civilized" customs disgust John? 6. Why does John refuse to come to the party? 7. How does John's refusal affect Bernard? 8. How does Bernard react to his downfall?
19BNW Study Questions: 14-151. Why are children given treats when they visit the for the Dying?2. Why is John's reaction to his mother's death inappropriate?3. Why does John attempt to stop the soma distribution?
20BNW Study Questions: 16-181. What happens to Bernard and Helmholtz? 2. Why does the Controller say they should be happy to be banished? 3. Why are Shakespeare and scientific research banned? 4. What does John mean when he says, "I claim them all"? 5. Why does John drink mustard water? 6. Why does John torture himself? 7. To what end does John come?