Presentation on theme: "Civil War Military and Political Leaders How about Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America?"— Presentation transcript:
Civil War Military and Political Leaders
How about Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America?
Jefferson Davis Grew up rich in a cotton plantation family in Mississippi. Educated at West Point and fought in Mexican War. Served in Senate and as Franklin Pierce’s Secretary of War. Hard working and committed to his job, strongly believed in Southern values.
Jefferson Davis Overly sensitive about criticism. Kept grudges, didn’t work with those he didn’t like. Meddled in all his advisors’ jobs and interfered in his generals’ planning of the war. Never developed a comprehensive plan of defense for the war. Never pulled the South together as a country to face the Union attack due to State’s Rights supporters and his own aristocratic personality.
Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America
Abraham Lincoln Grew up poor in a log cabin in Illinois. Had semi successful law career before serving one two year term in the Illinois House of Representatives. When elected President, most of his party figured they would be able to control him. Was the subject of jokes and ridicule: own general called him “the original Gorilla.”
Abraham Lincoln -Never allowed personal feelings to effect his policies and goals. -Was good at listening and creating policy that addressed different opinions. -Was a great leader of people, guided but let his advisors fail or succeed. -Quite sensitive to the emotions and needs of the public, listened to their concerns and comforted them, deeply hurt by Union’s losses.
Abraham Lincoln -Despite no military experience and bad generals, developed “Anaconda Plan” and Union blockade. -Overcame critics with strength by: -Raising troops w/o Congress’ consent -Suppressing opposition to war by taking away freedoms. -Even went against Supreme Court. -Very popular with soldiers.
What type of military leaders do you need to win? Experienced Decisive Brave Good with people Organized A little egotistical?
How about these Generals? Would you follow them into battle? Union Generals: Butler, Buckland, Brannon, Hamland Confederate Generals: Mahone, Marmaduke, McLaws, Lane
Military Leadership in the Civil War Presidents Lincoln and Davis considered themselves the Commanders in Chief. Many of the generals and officers from both sides were friends and had trained together at West Point When the war broke out, many of the officers had to choose which side to work for.
Military Leadership of the South Robert E. Lee -Admired by both sides as a gentleman and great general. -Struggled to make decisions with Davis -Rebel soldiers considered him a Southern hero. -Lee was daring, decisive, and heroic on the battlefield. He was a great leader of men and challenged them almost to a fault. -Led South to early victories, but made fateful decision to charge at Gettysburg and surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House -Was an important Union general before war.
Military Leadership of the South Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson -Deeply religious and intellectual man -Courageous and very disciplined leader -Made famous stand at Manassas but died at Chancellorsville after being shot by own sentry. -Commander in Virginia Army, engaged in many big battles and never surrendered. -Highest ranking Union officer to defect to Rebels Jubal Early Joseph Johnston -Lee called him his “bad old man” due to Early’s constant swearing. -Would “fight anything at any time.” -Thought by many to be more capable than Lee as a general.
Military Leadership of the South James Longstreet -Lee’s most trusted general and a brave warrior -Courageous leader who would take the field, but more of a defensive military genius. -Warned Lee about foolishly attacking at Gettysburg, never regained confidence after that. -Not real intelligent but a brave almost foolish general ready for fight at any time. -Famous for his Southern gentlemanly behavior around the ladies. -Led the famous “Pickett’s Charge” at Gettysburg and suffered the loss of over 50% of his men. George Pickett
Military Leadership of the North Ulysses S. Grant -Poor student at West Point (21 out of 39) and was a store clerk before the war. -Shabbily dressed, cigar chomping, hard headed and determined, quite unromantic about war. -Excellent at logistics: photographic memory for maps, willing to try any movements for advantage. -Brought important leadership after many generals had failed for Lincoln. -Criticized for drinking too much and being too plain. -Led Union army to brilliant victories and accepted Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.
Military Leadership of the North George McClellan -Young and brash leader for the Union. -Good at organizing but had the “slows,” prepared too much, wouldn’t follow up and attack. -Had chance after Battle of 7 Days to invade Richmond but delayed and was replaced as general. -Complete failure as successor to McClellan. Ambrose Burnside -Tried to fight Lee and was badly beaten. -Asked to be removed from command. -Famous for his “sideburns.” Joseph Hooker -Nicknamed “Fighting Joe” but lost at Fredericksburg and the Wilderness. -Most famous for seeing women of the evening called Joseph’s “hookers”
Military Leadership of the North George Meade -Succeeded Hooker as general -Took over 3 days before Gettysburg and guided Union to victory. -Not totally effective after that and Grant took over command of Meade’s army. -Determined and ruthless, one of the Union’s best. William Tecumseh Sherman -Put in charge of all the Union’s Western armies -Drove his armies southeast to Atlanta, won the city and burned it on the way out. -Best known for his army’s “March to the Sea” on which they destroyed everything in a 60 mile swath to keep the Rebels from having supplies.