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Unit 5: States of Consciousness Sleep, Dreams, and Drugs.

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1 Unit 5: States of Consciousness Sleep, Dreams, and Drugs

2 Sleep IQ Test, pp During sleep, your brain rests 2.You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep than you need. 3.Boredom makes you feel sleepy, even if you have had enough sleep 4.Resting in bed with your eyes closed cannot satisfy your body’s need for sleep. 5.Snoring is not harmful as long as it doesn’t disturb others or wake you up 6.Everyone dreams nightly. 7.The older you get, the fewer hours of sleep you need 8.Most people don’t know whey they are sleepy. 9.Raising the volume of your radio will help you stay awake while driving 10.Sleep disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems 11.The human body never adjusts to night shift work. 12.Most sleep disorders go away, even without treatment

3 Introduction Consciousness –States of consciousness Sleep Wake Altered states

4 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Sleep Stages Stages of sleep –Awake Alpha waves –Stage 1 Sleep Hallucinations Hypnagogic sensations

5 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Sleep Stages Stages of sleep –Stage 2 Sleep spindles –Stage 3 –Stage 4 Delta waves –REM sleepREM sleep

6 Why Do We Sleep? The Effects of Sleep Loss

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23 Exercise: Keeping a Sleep Diary Handout 5-4: Sleep Diary

24 Why Do We Sleep? Sleep Theories Sleep theories –Sleep protects –Sleep helps recuperation –Memory storage –Sleep and creative thinking –Sleep and growth

25 Video: The Effects of Sleep Deprivation: Three Brave Souls, Vol. 2, DVD 2, States of Consciousness, Clip #127, 6:00

26 Sleep Disorders Sleep disorders –InsomniaInsomnia –NarcolepsyNarcolepsy –Sleep apneaSleep apnea –Night terrorsNight terrors –Sleepwalking/ sleeptalking

27 Video: Sleep Terror Disorder, Vol. 2, DVD 2, States of Consciousness, Clip #128, 4:20

28 Critical Considerations:

29 Critical Considerations: Lacks any scientific support; dreams may be interpreted in many different ways.

30 Critical Considerations: But why do we sometimes dream about things we have not experienced?

31 Critical Considerations: This may be true, but it does not explain why we experience meaningful dreams.

32 Critical Considerations: The individual’s brain is weaving the stories, which still tells us something about the dreamer.

33 Critical Considerations: Does not address the neuroscience of dreams.

34 Hypnosis

35 Introduction Hypnosis –Hypnotic induction –Hypnosis as an altered state?

36 Facts and Falsehoods Can Anyone Experience Hypnosis? –Postural sway –Susceptibility Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events? –Age regression

37 Facts and Falsehoods Can Hypnosis Force People to Act Against Their Will? Can Hypnosis Be Therapeutic? –Hypnotherapists –Posthypnotic suggestionPosthypnotic suggestion Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain?

38 Video: Hypnosis: An Altered State of Mind?, Vol. 1, DVD 1, States of Consciousness, Clip #2, 4:00

39 Drugs and Consciousness

40 Introduction Psychoactive drugs

41 Psychoactive Drugs Three types of psychoactive drugs –DepressantsDepressants –StimulantsStimulants –HallucinogensHallucinogens

42 Psychoactive Drugs Depressants Depressants –Alcohol –Barbiturates (tranquilizers)Barbiturates –OpiatesOpiates

43 Psychoactive Drugs Depressants – Barbiturates and Opiates Barbiturate (tranquilizers)Barbiturate Opiates –Endorphins

44 Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants Introduction –StimulantsStimulants –AmphetaminesAmphetamines –Methamphetamine (speed)Methamphetamine Crystal meth –Caffeine

45 Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants Nicotine Cocaine –Crack Ecstasy –MDMA

46 Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens Hallucinogens (psychedelics)Hallucinogens –LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)LSD Acid Near-death experience –Marijuana THC

47 Consciousness = an awareness of ourselves and our environment.

48 Alpha Waves = the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

49 Sleep = periodic, natural loss of consciousness – as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.

50 Hallucinations = false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

51 REM Sleep = rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep state during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

52 Sleep = periodic, natural loss of consciousness – as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.

53 Hallucinations = false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

54 Delta Waves = the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.

55 Insomnia = recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

56 Narcolepsy = a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

57 Sleep Apnea = a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

58 Night Terrors = a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.

59 Hypnosis = a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

60 Posthypnotic Suggestion = a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.

61 Psychoactive Drug = a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.

62 Addiction = compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.

63 Depressants = drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

64 Barbiturates = drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.

65 Opiates = opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

66 Stimulants = drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

67 Amphetamines = drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.

68 Methamphetamine = a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.

69 Ecstasy (MDMA) = a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin- producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

70 Hallucinogens = psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

71 LSD = a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).

72 Near-Death Experience = an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.

73 THC = the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.


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