Presentation on theme: "Literary Devices Iambic Pentameter - Oxymoron. Iambic Pentameter The most common form of English poetic meter: Ten beats per line made up of 5 stressed."— Presentation transcript:
Iambic Pentameter The most common form of English poetic meter: Ten beats per line made up of 5 stressed and 5 unstressed syllables. Example #1: “So foul and fair a day I have not seen.” Example #2: “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?”
Imagery Language that appeals to the five major senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. Example #1: “Thy hair soft- lifted by the winnowing wind” (sight, touch) Example #2: “It was on a dreary night of November…when …I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs.”
Informal Essay A brief work of non-fiction that offers opinion on a subject, usually not in a completely serious tone. May be humorous, personal, even rambling. Example: A student’s writing about the quality of the cafeteria food. Well –known example: “An Academy for Women” by Daniel Defoe
Interior Monologue A character’s flow of thoughts that reveal the character’s mind and emotions; may appear in a series of images and impressions. Example: Victor’s inner turmoil and guilt mixed with his anger at the creature while wondering through the mountains and admiring nature.
The struggle that may occur within a character. Example #1: Macbeth’s struggle with the decision to kill Duncan and the effects of guilt. Example #2: Victor’s inner turmoil regarding his responsibilities. Internal Conflict
Internal Rhyme Rhyme that occurs within a single line of poetry. Example: “Give crowns and pounds and guineas, but not your heart away” --From “When I Was One- and-Twenty” by A.E. Housman
Irony A contrast between what is expected and what actually happens. Three types: Situational, Dramatic, Verbal. Example: Duncan expects peace at Macbeth’s castle which looks peaceful, but the audience is aware of the Macbeths’ evil plans (situational; dramatic)
Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet A poem consisting of 14 lines, made up of two quatrains and a final sestet. The rhyme scheme is abba, abba, cdc, cdc. Example: Sonnet 292 (see page 310 of textbook)
Kenning Examples: “The grey- bearded lord” (renames Hrothgar) “whale-road” (renames the sea) “The sin-stained demon” (renames Grendel) An Anglo-Saxon Metaphor; a compound word or phrase that renames
Imagery that recreates muscle tension and movement Example: “He felt the chilled dust push up between his toes” or “His foot pressed up against the starting block and his body tensed, ready for the shot…” Kinesthetic Imagery
Letters Written correspondence between individuals (friends, family, acquaintances, etc.) usually meant to be private. Examples: The Paston Family’s written exchange during the War of the Roses (Medieval Literature); Letters from the Crypt
Literary Ballad Examples: “Barbara Allan,” “Sir Patrick Spens,” “Get Up and Bar the Door”; or “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” adapted from an earlier folk song by unknown author(s) A narrative poem originally intended to be sung
Lyric A short poem in which a single speaker expresses personal thoughts and feelings; (from the Greek “lyre” = a musical instrument used to accompany songs) Examples: ; “The Wife’s Lament”; “The Moment” by Margaret Atwood; Shakespeare’s sonnets; Odes written by John Keats
Major Characters The most important characters in a work; the main characters who undergo a change throughout the movement of the plot. Examples: Beowulf; Macbeth & Lady Macbeth; Ebeneezer Scrooge; Victor & the Creature
Memoir A non-fiction, auto- biographical work in which the author recalls significant events in his or her life Examples: Testament of Youth by Vera Brittain; All But My Life by Gerta Wiesman Klein; Night by Elie Wiesel
Metaphor A direct comparison between two dissimilar things that may have something in common to be compared for effect. Examples: School is torture; English class is H.E.11; Marriage is a rose garden; Life is a long road of ups and downs
Metaphysical Poetry Examples: “A Valediction Forbidding Mourning,” and “Death Be Not Proud” – both by John Donne A 17 th century poetic style (promoted first by John Donne) that rejected courtly love and musical lyrical form and instead focused on the logical, intellectual and philosophical aspects of life; often contain conversational style, language play, unexpected images, and paradox.
Repetition of a regular rhythmic unit in poetry. Meter is indicated using a ˘ to denote an unstressed syllable and a / to denote a stressed syllable. Example: ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / I hold it true, whate’ er befall Repetition of a regular rhythmic unit in poetry. Meter is indicated using a ˘ to denote an unstressed syllable and a / to denote a stressed syllable. Example: ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / I hold it true, whate’ er befall Meter
Minor Characters The less important characters in a work of literature Examples: Wulfgar in Beowulf; Peter Cratchet in A Christmas Carol; Ernest and William in Frankenstein; Ross and Menteith in Macbeth
Miracle Play A medieval form of literature that dramatized the lives of saints. Examples: A play about the life of the Apostle Paul; A dramatic performance about John the Baptist
Monologue A lyric poem or a speech in a drama in which a speaker addresses a silent or absent listener in a moment of high intensity or deep emotion for the purpose of revealing feelings, motivations, etc. Examples: The poems “My Last Duchess” and “Porphyria’s Lover” by Robert Browning; Macbeth’s speech about the meaninglessness of life after the death of Lady Macbeth.
The feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader, often with the use of imagery, details, setting, connotation, etc. Examples: The eerie feeling that the witches create at the beginning of Macbeth; the gloomy setting of Victor’s lab; the description of the door where Mr. Hyde receives a check Mood
Morality Play A medieval form of drama in which the characters were allegorical (symbolic) figures such as Death, Greed, Pride, Jealousy, etc. Examples: A drama portraying an old man character named Death who teaches three rioters a lesson about greed
Motif The smallest recurring element in a story having the power to persist in tradition, often related to the theme. Examples: Water in Macbeth; Scrooge’s Journey to his past; Death in Frankenstein
Mystery Play Examples: A dramatic performance of “Noah and the Ark,” or “Job,” or “Joseph and His Brothers,” or “Moses Leading the Hebrews out of Egypt” A medieval dramatic form that portrays a biblical story; often performed in churches or the outdoors
Narration / Narrator The telling of a story or the voice of a story; the voice may be a character in the story or a voice outside the action. Examples: Robert Walton, Victor, & the Creature in Frankenstein; Mr. Utterson in Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde.
Narrative Writing concerned with relating aseries of events; it can be imaginary orfactual.Examples: A short story; a novel; anewspaper account; a soldier’saccount of his stay in Iraq; Hiroshima, a journalist’s compilation of survivortestimonies
Narrative Poem A poem that tells a story; narrative poems contain characters, plot, point of view, and theme Examples: Beowulf; the Iliad; the Odyssey; Paradise Lost; Rime of the Ancient Mariner;
Naturalism A form of realism in which the writer conveys the belief that everything is part of the natural world and explainable by natural or physical causes; characters are victims of natural forces Examples: Doris Lessing’s “A Sunrise on the Veld”; Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; William Golding’s Lord of the Flies
Neoclassicism An 18 th century writing style that imitated classical literature with the use of strict form, logic, symmetry, restraint, clarity, & conciseness; purposes included instruction in moral and social behavior; essays, epigrams, satire, and parody are favorite forms of this writing movement Examples: Jonathan Swift’s “Modest Proposal”;“An Essay on Man” by Alexander Pope
Nonfiction Prose writing about real people, places, and events Examples: Autobiographies, biographies, letters, essays, diaries, journals, memoirs, speeches; The Paston Letters; Winston Churchill’s speeches
Novel An extended work of fiction Examples: Frankenstein; Lord of the Flies; The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Brave New World; A Separate Piece
Octave Eight lines of poetry; the first eight lines of a sonnet that may ask a question or present a problem Example: Shakespeare’s sonnet 29 opens by posing the problem of despair; might have a rhyme scheme of abba, abba or ababcdcd
Ode An exalted, complex lyric that develops a serious, dignified theme; often praise people, nature, or commemorate events Examples: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poems in praise of the West Wind and in praise of a Skylark (“_____ to the West Wind”)
Off Rhyme End rhyme that is not exact but near rhyme or approximate. Examples: “come” and“doom” in “The FrogPrince” by Stevie Smith
Omniscient Point of View The all-knowing perspective of the narrator into the minds of more than one character; allows depth and complexity not permitted with the first- person or limited p.o.v. Examples: “The Rocking Horse Winner” by D.H. Lawrence
Onomatopoeia Words whose sounds echo their meanings Examples: buzz, gurgle,whisper, murmur
Oxymoron A “concise” paradox; two contradictory terms that are placed together for effect Examples: “cruel kindness,” or “brave fear,” or “brilliant moron”
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