Presentation on theme: "Oakland Unified School District History/Social Studies Preparing for the Fall, 2000 U.S. History Writing Assessment Andrew Carnegie in Context: Industrializing."— Presentation transcript:
Oakland Unified School District History/Social Studies Preparing for the Fall, 2000 U.S. History Writing Assessment Andrew Carnegie in Context: Industrializing America
Question to Consider: Is Andrew Carnegie an American Hero? A person of exceptional courage or ability, admired for his or her brave deeds and noble qualities - someone whose actions are the driving force behind an important social or political change that lifts the spirit of America and betters the situation of the country.
The Era of Industrialization was a time of … - Big Business - Technological Change - Great Wealth & Great Poverty - Labor Activism
The Growth of Industry: Some Statistics Increase in the Size of Industrial Establishments (Number of workers per average establishment) 18601900 Agricultural implements 865 Cotton goods112287 Iron and steel65333 Paper1565 Shipbuilding1542 Meatpacking 2061 Tobacco 3067 Increasing Industrial Output, 1870- 1910 CoalSteel 187020 million tons850 million tons 1890111 million tons6,746 million tons 1910417 million tons 24,216 million tons http://www.gilderlehrman.org/teachers/module12/tool_is_pop12.html
The Growth of Railroads: Railway Mileage of the U.S. 1830 -1890 Central Pacific locomotive No. 1, the first engine to be placed in construction service on the western end of the transcontinental railroad. 1840 1850 1880 1890 50,000 miles100,000 miles150,000 miles 1860 1870 http://railroads.unl.edu/documents/view_document.php?id=rail.str.0252
A Time of Technological and Material Advancement Our inventors are the true national builders, the true promoters of civilization. They … add to the sum of human knowledge, to the sum of human possessions, and to the sum of human happiness. -- US Patent office, 1892
Industrial Leaders, the New Millionaires Carnegie
Millionaire's Row, New York City in the 1880s The Carnegie Mansion, 5 th Ave. & 91 st St. The Frick Mansion, 5 th Ave. & 70 th St. Mrs. Astor’s House, 5 th Ave. & 65 th St. The Vanderbilt Chateau, 5 th Ave. & 52 nd St. - American Experience - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/gallery/index.html
The Condition of Workers In 1890, 11 million of the nation's 12 million families earned less than $1200 per year; of this group, the average annual income was $380, well below the poverty line. Americans had sewing machines, phonographs, skyscrapers, and even electric lights, yet most people labored in the shadow of poverty. - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/gildedage.html
Lower East Side of New York Housing in the 1880s Photos by Jacob Riis, at Colby College Library, http://imago.colby.edu/luna/servlet
Andrew Carnegie: A Very Brief Introduction Born to a poor family in Scotland, 1835. Came to America at the age of 12. A “rags to riches” story. Founded his own business and rose to the top of steel industry. His company dominated the steel business. Became one of America’s wealthiest men In 1901 Carnegie sold his company for $480 million and retired. Devoted his time to giving away his fortune in support of public libraries and education.
American Heritage, October 1998. Andrew Carnegie was one of the 40 Richest Americans in History
Andrew Carnegie - From Explore PAHistory - http://explorepahistory.com/displayimage.php?imgId=2831
Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth Carnegie believed that men who earned great wealth through their hard work and industry should use their money to help society. He argued that a man of wealth’s ability to earn great amounts of money meant he was also best able to determine what was best for society; if he took on that responsibility. He wrote, “The man who dies rich dies disgraced." http://www.carnegie.lib.oh.us/andrewcarnegie.htm
Many people admired Carnegie, but he also has his critics I honor the personal qualities of the author [Carnegie] which are displayed in this essay [The Gospel of Wealth], — independence, business wisdom, breadth of view, and generous motive. I acknowledge the great benefit to society from the gifts of the rich.... But I believe that the charity given out by this gospel is too costly… For I can conceive of no greater mistake… than that of trying to make charity do the work of justice… The question is not, "How shall private wealth be returned to the public? But, why should it exist in such bewildering amounts … in the hands of the few?“ - from William Jewett Tucker, “The Gospel of Wealth,” Andover Review, Vol XV, June 1891.
A Significant Moment in Carnegie’s Career and in the History of Labor in America: The Homestead Strike of 1892 The Battle Between Carnegie Steel and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers Steel workers battle with Pinkerton agents brought in by the company to break their strike, July 6, 1892 - Explore PAhistory - Courtesy of the Rivers of Steel National Heritage Area, http://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=808
What Happened at Homestead Carnegie Steel Company wanted to break the iron and steel workers union that had successfully negotiated a contract that expired, July of 1892. They did not want to a union work force. The company cut wages for 325 of the skilled workers in the steel mill and built a fence around the factory to keep the workers out. They planned to bring in non-union workers, strike breakers, to take over the jobs of union workers. The company hired 300 Pinkerton agents to come the factory to help bring in the strike breakers. The steel workers resisted the Pinkerton’s attempt to get to the factory and a battle broke out.
Images of the Battle - Wood engraving in Harper's Weekly, July 16, 1892, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division -Frank Leslie's illustrated weekly, July 14, 1892, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
The Governor of Pennsylvania sends in the National Guard: Support for the Company and a Defeat for the Workers Troops arrive in Homestead, July 12, 1892 Credit: Library of Congress, at http://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=782
A Political Cartoonist Blames Carnegie for What Happened -from Explore PAhistory - http://explorepahistory.com/displayimage.php?imgId=3395
Before the Battle of Homestead Carnegie left for Scotland: Newspapers Commented in the Aftermath “… what does Carnegie do? Runs off to Scotland out of harm's way… A single word from him might have saved the bloodshed - but the word was never spoken.... Say what you will of Henry Frick, he is a brave man. Say what you will of Carnegie, he is a coward. And gods and men hate cowards." - St. Louis Post-Dispatch "While the slaughter was going on partner Carnegie was at his castle in Scotland enjoying his more than princely income and posing as a benefactor of the working class and a general friend to humanity. - The Cleveland Plain Dealer - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_judas.html
Workers Across the Country Blame Carnegie Sing ho, for we know you, Carnegie: God help us and save us, we know you too well; You’re crushing our wives and you’re staraving our babies; In our homes you have driven the shadow of hell. Then bow, bow down to Carnegie, Ye men who are slaves to his veriest whim; If he lowers your wages cheer, vassals, then cheer. Ye are nothing but chattels and slaves under him. -From song, “A Man Named Carnegie,” anonymous, California, July 7, 1892.
Judge Magazine, July 25, 1903 After he sold his multi-million dollar company, Carnegie Steel in 1900 he spent the rest of his life giving his fortune away. Carnegie – the Philanthropist
Carnegie’s Views on Spending His Wealth - Philanthropy Don't spoil your heirs. Carnegie believed inherited wealth spoiled the heirs. "I should as soon leave to my son a curse as the almighty dollar," he said. Help those willing to help themselves. "It were better for mankind that the millions of the rich were thrown into the sea than so spent as to encourage the slothful, the drunken, the unworthy," Carnegie wrote. For Carnegie, himself a self-educated man, libraries and education seemed the ideal gifts. In 1889, he presented the seven "wisest" fields of philanthropy, listed in this order: Universities Free libraries Hospitals Parks Concert halls Swimming baths Church buildings (Carnegie's list generated more than a few irate letters to the editor from ministers, who were upset to find churches listed behind swimming pools.)
Some of the Free Public Libraries Carnegie Helped Build 659 14th Street Oakland, CA 94612 Public library from 1902-1951. Now the African American Museum Library
He Also Supported Education Education was important to Carnegie, pictured here at the Tuskegee Institute with Booker T. Washington and others CREDIT: Johnston, Frances Benjamin. "Tuskegee Institute faculty with Andrew Carnegie, Tuskegee, Alabama." 1902. Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.