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Musical Form The organization of musical ideas in time The “shape” of a piece of music.

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Presentation on theme: "Musical Form The organization of musical ideas in time The “shape” of a piece of music."— Presentation transcript:

1 Musical Form The organization of musical ideas in time The “shape” of a piece of music

2 Techniques for Creating FORM in Music 1. Repetition A A 2. Contrast A B 3. Variation A A’ A’’

3 Oh, say can you see by the dawn’s early light what so proudly we hailed as the twilight’s last gleaming. Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight o’er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming. And the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air, gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Oh say does that star-spangled banner yet wave, o’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

4 A - Oh, say can you see by the dawn’s early light what so proudly we hailed as the twilight’s last gleaming. A - Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight o’er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming. B - And the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air, gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. C -Oh say does that star-spangled banner yet wave, o’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

5 Happy Birthday to you – Happy Birthday to you – Happy Birthday to so-and-so – Happy Birthday to you –

6 A - Happy Birthday to you – A’ - Happy Birthday to you – A’’ - Happy Birthday to so-and- so – B - Happy Birthday to you –

7 P.I. TCHAIKOVSKY - Dance of the Reed Pipes TERNARY (3-part) FORM – A B A

8 J.S. BACH - Forlane BINARY (2-part) FORM – A B

9 Most Common Techniques for creating VARIATION in music 1. Melodic Variation 2. Textural Variation 3. Timbral Variation

10 Melodic Variation 1. Embellishments/Ornamentation 2. Changes of Mode (Major/Minor) 3. Melodic Extensions/Subtractions (Fragmentation)

11 Textural Variation 1. Addition of countermelodies and/or other non-imitative polyphony countermelody - melodic idea that accompanies a main theme 2. Sections of imitative polyphony (I.e. fugatos/fugal sections) on a melody and/or motive 3. Adding or changing accompaniment to melody

12 Timbral Variation 1. Changes in timbre (changes in instrument(s) playing melody and/or accompaniment) 2. Tutti vs. Soli

13 Sectionals Forms Theme and Variations A A’ A’’ A’’’ etc. Minuet and Trio A B A Rondo A B A C A or A B A C A B A

14 Theme and Variation Form Form in which a basic musical idea (the theme) is repeated over and over and is changed each time in melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, or tone color. Used either as an independent piece or a s on movement of a larger work (very often the form of the 2nd mvt. of a 4-mvt. symphony) Examples: –JOSEPH HAYDN - Movement 2, Symphony No. 94 in G Major (The “Surprise”) –AARON COPLAND - Section 7 from Appalachian Spring

15 JOSEPH HAYDN - Mvt. 2 from Symphony No. 94 in G Major A aabb Each “b” section has a tiny bit of the “a’ music near the end: technically, you could diagram this ||: a :||: b a’ :||. This is called a “rounded” binary form

16 JOSEPH HAYDN - Mvt. 2 from Symphony No. 94 in G Major A A’A’ aabb violin countermelody

17 JOSEPH HAYDN - Mvt. 2 from Symphony No. 94 in G Major AA’A’ A ’’ aabb aab? violin countermelody minor

18 JOSEPH HAYDN - Mvt. 2 from Symphony No. 94 in G Major A A’A’ A ’’ A ’’’ aabb aab? aabb violin countermelody minor Flute & oboe cntrmel.

19 JOSEPH HAYDN - Mvt. 2 from Symphony No. 94 in G Major A A’A’ A ’’ A ’’’ aabb A ’’’’ aabbaab?aabb violin countermelody minortutti Flute & oboe cntrmel.

20 JOSEPH HAYDN - Mvt. 2 from Symphony No. 94 in G Major A A’A’ A ’’ A ’’’ aabb A ’’’’ aabbaab?aabb Coda a violin countermelody minortutti Flute & oboe cntrmel.

21 Coda (from Latin “cauda” meaning ‘tail’) A concluding section immediately following the formal close of a sectional form that closes a movement or piece by repeating themes or developing them further

22 AARON COPLAND - Section 7 from Appalachian Spring A “simple gifts” hymn-tune in clarinet

23 AARON COPLAND - Section 7 from Appalachian Spring A A’A’ “simple gifts” hymn-tune in clarinet oboe & bassoon faster, higher in pitch

24 AARON COPLAND - Section 7 from Appalachian Spring A A’A’ A ’’ “simple gifts” hymn-tune in clarinet oboe & bassoon faster, higher in pitch new bell-like accompaniment melody in violas & trombones; then IMITATION in strings

25 AARON COPLAND - Section 7 from Appalachian Spring A A’A’ A ’’ A ’’’ “simple gifts” hymn-tune in clarinet oboe & bassoon faster, higher in pitch new bell-like accompaniment melody in violas & trombones; then IMITATION in strings brass, very fast, staccato

26 AARON COPLAND - Section 7 from Appalachian Spring A A’A’ A ’’ A ’’’ “simple gifts” hymn-tune in clarinet A ’’’’ oboe & bassoon faster, higher in pitch new bell-like accompaniment melody in violas & trombones; then IMITATION in strings brass, very fast, staccato woodwinds, slower

27 AARON COPLAND - Section 7 from Appalachian Spring A A’A’ A ’’ A ’’’ “simple gifts” hymn-tune in clarinet A ’’’’ oboe & bassoon faster, higher in pitch new bell-like accompaniment melody in violas & trombones; then IMITATION in strings brass, very fast, staccato woodwinds, slower A ’’’’’ tutti, loud, slow,

28 Minuet & Trio Form Also called “minuet” form A compostional form - derived from a dance - in three parts: –Minuet (A) - Trio (B) - Minuet (A) Often used as the 3rd movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and other works It is in triple meter and usually in a moderate tempo (because the dance was an elegant, stately courtly dance) Beethoven sped the “minuet” up very fast and turned it into a “joke” movement called a SCHERZO Example –W. A. MOZART - Mvt. 3 from Eine kleine nachtmusik

29 W.A. MOZART - Movement 3 (Allegretto) from Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music) This piece is a SERENADE –An instrumental composition, light in mood, usually meant for evening entertainment

30 W.A. MOZART - Mvt. 3 from Eine kleine Nachtmusik A aabb minuet Each “b” section has a tiny bit of the “a’ music near the end: technically, you could diagram this ||: a :||: b a’ :||. This is called a “rounded” binary form a = forte staccato melody b = piano legato melody, with Forte staccato melody fragment returning at end of phrase

31 W.A. MOZART - Mvt. 3 from Eine kleine Nachtmusik A aabb B ccdd minuet trioc = gracious piano legato melody with murmuring accompaniment d = climbing forte legato phrase with bit of piano gracious melody at the end of phrase Each “d” section has a tiny bit of the “c” music near the end: technically, you could diagram this ||: a :||: b a’ :||. This is called a “rounded” binary form

32 W.A. MOZART - Mvt. 3 from Eine kleine Nachtmusik A aabb A ab B ccdd minuet trio minuet NO repeats !!!

33 Rondo Form A compostional form featuring a main theme (A) which returns several times in alternation with other themes, such as –A B A C A or –A B A C A B A Often used as the form of the last movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and sonatas Also often used at the 3rd and final movement form in a Classical concerto Example: –LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Movement 4 from String Quartet in C Minor

34 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb Each “b” section has a tiny bit of the “a’ music near the end: technically, you could diagram this ||: a :||: b a’ :||. This is called a “rounded” binary form minor, fast-sounding, some staccato In each ‘b’ = unexpected held tone

35 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb B ccdd minor major, slower-sounding, very legato Each “d” section has a tiny bit of the “c” music near the end: technically, you could diagram this ||: a :||: b a’ :||. This is called a “rounded” binary form

36 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb B ccdd A aa’bb’ minormajor & legato minor slight variation in repeats with more agitated tremolos

37 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb B ccdd A aabb C eee’e’ major, imitation

38 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb B ccdd A aabb A aa bb… C eee’e’ Big pause in music before 2nd “b” phrase transition section

39 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb B ccdd A aabb A C eee’e’ B cc f?? new material with lots of variation

40 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb B ccdd A aabb A C eee’e’ B cc f?? A ab

41 LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN - Mvt. 4 (Allegro) from String Quartet in C Minor A aabb B ccdd A aabb A C eee’e’ B cc f?? A ab CODA Coda moves faster and faster


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