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© Boardworks Ltd 2001 When you do a science experiment, it’s helpful to know the names of the equipment and materials you use. It saves misunderstandings.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2001 When you do a science experiment, it’s helpful to know the names of the equipment and materials you use. It saves misunderstandings."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 When you do a science experiment, it’s helpful to know the names of the equipment and materials you use. It saves misunderstandings and you know what you’re doing. The same is true of language. It’s important to know the tools you use and the names for things. Here we will revise some of the tools and terms we use in English. Word classes and linguistic terms

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Word classes There are different types or classes of word. Here are the main words classes. noun adjective verb adverb pronoun determiner preposition conjunction Let’s see how well you know them.

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4 Nouns Did you notice that nouns were missing from the last exercise? Nouns denote people and places, things and ideas. They can be divided into the following groups. proper Names of people, places, etc. They have a capital letter. E.g. London common All nouns that are not proper nouns. collective This is a noun that refers to a group. E.g. flock, herd,

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6 Noun phrases A noun phrase refers to a group of words that are built around a noun. E.g. my sister my little sister my brave little sister my brave little sister on crutches Notice how you can build up noun phrases.

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8 Adjectives Adjectives describe people or things. They go before nouns and after some verbs. E.g. the happy girl she is happy the wooden tablethe table looks wooden

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10 You can also compare things using adjectives. This drink is cool. The water is cooler. The cola is coolest. This is the comparative form.This is the superlative form. For words of more than two syllables, we use more and most to make these forms. more important most important This is the comparative form.This is the superlative form. Adjectives

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Verbs A verb expresses an action or a state of being. She jumped up. He is happy. There are main verbs... I walked away. and auxiliary verbs. I was walking away. Auxiliary verbs help the main verb. These are auxiliary verbs. be have do may might can could will would shall should must These can be either auxiliary or main verbs: be have do

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13 Verbs can change their form. This gives us an indication of when the action takes place. I dance for enjoyment. I danced all last night. I was dancing for four hours. I will be dancing next week too. Look at how these sentences tell us when the action takes place. present past future Verbs

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Adverbs Can you spot the adverbs in these sentences? He walked slowly. He walked extremely slowly. His progress was really slow. He walked slowly. He walked extremely slowly. His progress was really slow. An adverb can give more information about... a verb another adverb an adjective Adverbs often end in -ly, but here are some more to look out for: well very often never later now yesterday soon perhaps Did you spot these?

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Pronouns Pronouns often replace a noun. They help us to avoid repetition. Here are some very common pronouns: ouryou whomwhich thosetheirs Here are some more to look out for. I me we us you he she it they them my mine our ours your yours his her their myself yourself itself this that these someone who what

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17 Determiners Determiners are used with nouns. The most common determiners are: aanthe Other common determiners are this that these those my you’re his her its our their some many no all each every both enough numbers (one, two, three, etc.) Many determiners are used as pronouns and in that case they are not followed by a noun.

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2001 Conjunctions These are words which join clauses together. but and or yet then Other conjunctions tell us when, where and why. I will be leaving after I have eaten. You will find your ring where you left it. The train is late because it left Penzance late. Some other common conjunctions are: before, since, until, although, unless, so, when, wherever

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20 Plenary Well done! There’s a lot of tricky words and phrases here. Knowledge about words will give you control over the words you use. It will help you investigate the writing of others too.


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