Presentation on theme: "ACCESS TO RECOVERY ANIISHNAABEK HEALING CIRCLE"— Presentation transcript:
1ACCESS TO RECOVERY ANIISHNAABEK HEALING CIRCLE Understanding Our JourneyLinda Woods, MSW
2Personal InformationGrand Traverse Band of Ottawa & Chippewas tribal member, PeshawbestownBegan SA field in the mid 70’s – Native American program in San Jose, CAVolunteer working with alcoholics when not working in the field (jail meetings, prison, etc)Graduated MSW - San Jose University 1994Worked with SA clients in child welfare, CAWorking with the Anishinaabek for GTB, Inter-Tribal Council & in 2008 retired from Substance Abuse Director at Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians – PetoskeyTribal Elder, Veteran (U.S.A.F ), mother, grandmother
3PURPOSE – The Journey Understanding the Aniishnaabek journey What happened? Who are we today?Understanding the importance of our historyWhat is it like walking in our ‘moccasins’?Exploring our cultural journeyHelping your clients embracewho they are todayApplying recovery principles
4Learning ObjectivesKnowledge & understanding culture of the Anishnaabek in MichiganTribal History – Ojibwe, Odawa, BodawatomiClan SystemImpact of Historical TraumaBoarding SchoolsLoss of CultureCulture for Solutions: Medicine Wheel, Seven Grandfather/Grandmother Teachings, Sacred Plants & MedicinesRecovery Concepts for Native AmericansThis training will cover Tribal History, Impact of Historical Trauma, Loss of Culture, Seven Grandfather/Grandmother teachings, Sacred Plants/Medicine and Recovery Concepts for Native Americans.
5You will also learn : Laughter is healing Laughter is a powerful medicine that brings not only the spirit within happiness but brings healing as well to the body & mind.We have learned to laugh at ourselves
6JokesYou know it's time to lose weight when: * You can't see your moccasin strings anymore * You can't fit your choker, because you no longer have a neck * The car naturally tilts downward on the side you always ride on* You have to "lift" your stomach to show off your new beaded belt buckleYou eat Indian Tacos like potato chipsrez (reservation) dawgs How can you spot the difference between a regular canine and a Rez dog? Throw each one in the oven at 400 degrees for 20 minutes. The regular canine should come out tender and moist. The Rez dog will come out with a towel wrapped around his waist saying, "Dang that was a good sweat!" * You don't even feel your mosquito bites* You almost pass out in the sweathouse using only one rock
7rez (reservation) dawgs How can you spot the difference between a regular canine and a Rez dog? Throw each one in the oven at 400 degrees for 20 minutes. The regular canine should come out tender and moist. The Rez dog will come outwith a towel wrapped around his waistsaying, "Dang that was a good sweat!"
8Pre-Contact“There was a time long ago when our people believed that all of creation was sacred and we were one”2 million indigenous people lived on ‘Turtle Island’ long before Europeans came to this land“Indian” refers to what Columbus called the Native people, Indios thinking he was in the East IndiesRef: Alcohol Problems in Native America: The Untold Story of Resistance and Recovery– The Truth About the Lie” Don L. Coyhis (White Bison) and William L. White
9Pre-ContactNative people identified themselves based on their connection to their families, clan or tribeBasic understanding of plant-based medicines – western: less than 10 plant based drugs; tribal people used more than 170 plant-based medicinesPhilosophy of oneness with all of creationNo ‘abuse’ of plants – respected – minimized use of alcohol to ceremonial purposesDescribe ‘Turtle Island’ philosophy
10Early Days Post Contact 15th – 18th Century English, French, Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, Russians –East, South, North, WestInitial introduction of alcohol throughoutInitial response to alcohol was rather ‘benign’ - Rejection of alcoholChange in patterns of drinking beganto emerge
11Tecumseh “Touch not the poisonous firewater that makes wise men turn to fools and robsthe spirit of its vision.”
12NMEGOSIn the words of an Odawa prophet who voiced his prayer for our people:“….My Children, you may salute the Whites when you meet them, but must not shake hands … you must not drink one drop of whiskey. It is the drink of the evil spirit. It was not made by me-but by the Americans. It is poison. Neither are you on any account to eat bread. It is the food of the Whites.”
13ANISHNAABEKThe name, Anishnaabek means The Original People that is a name given to the three tribes who have called this land their homeland for many centuries before European contactThe three tribes are: Ojibwe (Chippewa), Odawa (Ottawa), Bodewadmi (Potawatomi) = 12 Federally recognized tribes in Michigan todayshare a common language baseThree Fires ConfederacyExplain how the different ‘bands’ of the tribes became federally recognized tribes; Potawatomi means “keepers of the fire” ‘ refers to the tribe’s role within the Three Fires Confederacy with the Ojibwe and Odawa People. TheBodewadmi lived in hunting fishing and farming villages extending from Lake Erie to Green Bay and the Mississippi/ The people managed their villages through clan-based group councils.
14Add updated numbers of each tribe and ‘urban’ Indians; each tribe became ‘federally recognized’ or ‘reaffirmed’ (2 tribes – LTBB & LR) = over 550 Federally Recognized tribes 223 village groups in Alaska; Federally Recognized means “ tribes and groups have a special, legal relationship with the U.S. government. This relationship is referred to as a government-to-government relationship.”
15Tribal Contacts: Bay Mills Indian Community 12140 W. Lakeshore Dr Tribal Contacts: Bay Mills Indian Community W. Lakeshore Dr., Brimley, MI Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians 2605 N. Bayshore Dr., Suttons Bay, MI Hannahville Indian Community N Hannahville B-1 Rd., Wilson, MI Keweenaw Bay Indian Community Beartown Rd., Baraga, MI
16Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians P. O Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians P.O. Box 249, Watersmeet, MI 49969 Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians 7500 Odawa Circle, Harbor Springs, MI Match-E-Be-Nash-She (Gun Lake Tribe) P.O. Box 218, nd Ave., Dorr, MI Nottawaseppi Band of Huron Potawatomi /2 Mile Rd., Fulton, MI www.nhbpi.com
17Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians Sink Road Dowagiac, MichiganSaginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe 7070 E. Broadway, Mt. Pleasant, MI Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians 523 Ashmun St., Sault Ste. Marie, MI Bureau of Indian Affairs 2845 Ashmun St., Sault Ste. Marie, MI /
18Three Fires Confederacy The three tribes interacted with eachother like members of a family.The Ojibwa was referred to as the "olderbrother;“ the Odawa was the “middlebrother” and the Potawatomi was the"younger brother." We are still family toeach other today.Together, they formed the Three FiresConfederacy, a loose knit alliance thatpromoted their mutual interests.Per Earl Mishigaud, “they all worked together” as a family to help each other, even to this day.
19The Ojibwa are the “Keepers of the Faith,“ the Odawa are the “Keepers of the Trade”and the Potawatomi are the “Keepers of theFire.”There were Three Bundles (medicine): TheOjibwa maintain the Midewin Lodge; TheOdawa had the Shaking Lodge;The Bodéwadmi have the Wabano Lodge.Fire (boodawaadam), which became thebasis for their name Boodewaadamii (Ojibwaspelling) or Bodéwadmi (Potawatomispelling).Ref: Earl Meshigaud, Hannahville Indian Community
20Using the Midewiwin scrolls, Potawatomi elder Shup-Shewana dated the formation ofthe Council of Three Fires to 796 AD atMichilimackinac.Though the Three Fires had several meetingplaces, Michilimackinac became the preferredmeeting place due to its central location. Fromthis place, the Council met for military andpolitical purposes.The Council generally had a peacefulexistence with its neighbors.The Council also used the totem (or clan)system as a promotion of trade.A totem is any entity that watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan.A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by actual or perceived descent from a common ancestor.
21CLAN SYSTEMOjibwe people organized themselves into grand families, called dodem or clans.Originally six human beings that came out of the sea to live among us. These six beings, which were Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Ajejauk (Crane), Makwa (Bear), Moosance (Little Moose), Waabizheshi (Marten), and Bineshii (Thunderbird), created the original clans. * From Wikipedia - Internet
22CLAN SYSTEM 20 offshoots of the original clans The clan system operated as a form of government, a method of organizing work, and a way of defining the responsibilities of each community member.Working together, the clans attended to the physical, intellectual, psychological, and spiritual needs of the community. Each was known by its totem (animal emblem).
23Characteristics of Clans The Bird Clan represented the spiritual leaders of the people and gave the nation its vision of well-being and its highest development of the spirit. The people of the Bird Clan were said to possess the characteristics of the eagle, the head of their clan, in that they pursued the highest elevations of the mind just as the eagle pursues the highest elevations of the sky.
24Characteristics of Clans Crane (Ajejauk) clan members were known for their loud and clear voices and recognized as famous speakers. The Crane and the Loon Clans were given the power of Chieftainship. By working together, these two clans gave the people a balanced government with each serving as a check on the other.
25Characteristics of Clans The people of the Fish Clan were the teachers and scholars. They helped children develop skills and healthy spirits.In the age-old tradition, clan members of the same clan respectfully acknowledged each other with the greeting "Aaniin (hello!) Dodem."
26The PotawatomiApproximately four thousand members lived in southern Wisconsin when the Europeans arrived, moved around the southern tip of Lake Michigan and settled in northern Indiana and southwestern Michigan in the early seventeenth century.Called "the people of the place of the fire," the Potawatomi are considered among Michigan's earliest farmers, particularlyfamed for their medicinal herbal gardens*From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
27California. Another Band of Potawatomi are in Per U.S. government policy many of them were forcibly relocated to Kansas and Oklahoma by the U.S. military. There is also a small band found in Mexico and another band near Bakersfield,California. Another Band of Potawatomi are inCanada, Walpole Island, near Sarnia.Today, in Michigan there are bands ofPottawatomi located in Shelbyville as theMatch-e-be-nash-she-wish Band (1999); theNottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomiin Fulton; the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi (1994) in Dowagiac, and the Hannahville Indian Community in Wilson, MI (upper peninsula).Ref: Earl Meshigaud, Hannahville Indian Community
28ODAWAThe original homelands are located on Manitoulin Island in present day province of Ontario Canada and in the state of Michigan, they occupy the western half of the Lower Peninsula.The Ottawa people were seasonal wanderers of the land and sailors of the Great Lakes gathering wild rice, netting fish, trapping both large and small game, and hunting large game such as moose, deer, and caribou.
29As keepers of the trade, Ottawa people were great traders and craftsmen. Onehallmark of Ottawa life is the birch barkcanoe.They were noted among theirneighbors as intertribal tradersand barterers, dealing “chiefly incornmeal , sunflower oil, fur andskin, rug and tobacco, andMedicinal root and herb.They allied with the French against the British and Chief Pontiac led a rebellion against the British at Fort Detroit in 1763.
30Today, Ottawas are located: Harbor Springs is the headquarters of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa (1994), serving 21 counties;Manistee is the headquarters of the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians (1994);Peshawestown is the headquarters of the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa & Chippewa Indians serving 6 counties (1980);There are other bands in Michigan that are not as yet “federally recognized” such as the Grand River Band of Ottawa near Muskegon and the Burt Lake Band of Ottawa in Emmet County;The Ottawa Tribe of OklahomaWikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve on Manitoulin Island, Wikmemikong, CanadaMaple River Band of Ottawas, Michigan? Maple River Band had a village at the confluence of the Maple River and the Grand River, at present day Portland. The band split in several directions. The Okemos family went to Sag Chip, some went to Gun Lake area, and others to Grand Traverse. The process of becoming federally recognized and/or reaffirmed has been long & tedious filled with obstacles but our leaders and ancestors have persisted & determined to maintain our homelands. GTB applied for federal recognition Indian Reorganization Act under the leadership of Ben Peshaba in 1934; was denied; applied again under Casper Ance in 1943, again denied; finally in 1978 under leadership of Dodie Harris reapplied & finally the tribe was “re-recognized” in 1980.
32OJIBWAThe Ojibwe (also Ojibwa or Ojibway) or Chippewa (also Chippeway) are among the largest groups of Native Americans-First Nations. They are the third-largest in the U.S., surpassed only by Cherokee and Navajo. They are equally divided between the United States and Canada.Originally they came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island and from along the east coast.recordings in birch bark scrolls
33OJIBWAKnown for their birch bark canoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, the use of cowrie shells, wild rice, copper points, & for their use of gun technology from the British to defeat and push back the Dakota nation of the Sioux (1745).Historically, they traded widely across the continent for thousands of years and knew of the canoe routes west and a land route to the west coast.Their migration path would be symbolized by a series of smaller Turtle Islands, which was confirmed with miigis shells (i.e., cowry shells). After receiving assurance from the their "Allied Brothers" (i.e., Mi'kmaq) and "Father" (i.e., Abnaki) of their safety in having many more of the Anishinaabeg move inland, they advanced along the St. Lawrence River to the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing, and then to the Great Lakes. First of these smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa, which Mooniyaang (Montreal, Quebec) now stands. The "second stopping place" was in the vicinity of the Wayaanag-gakaabikaa (Concave Waterfalls, i.e. Niagara Falls). At their "third stopping place" near the present-day city of Detroit, Michigan, the Anishinaabeg divided into six divisions, of which the Ojibwe was one of these six. The first significant new Ojibwe culture-centre was their "fourth stopping place" on Manidoo Minising (Manitoulin Island). Their first new political-centre was referred as their "fifth stopping place", in their present country at Baawiting (Sault Ste. Marie). As they moved westward, in a vision they were led to go to the "place where there is food (i.e. wild rice) upon the waters."
35Today Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Sault Ste. Marie, MI Bay Mills Indian Community, Brimley, MILac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Indians, 1988, Watersmeet, MIKeweenaw Bay Indian Community Lake Superior Band of Chippewa Indians, 1936, Baraga, MISaginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe, Mt. Pleasant, MI"The Place of the Pike" (Gnoozhekaaning), is a History of the Bay Mills Indian Community.
36Historical TraumaRefers to the oppression that occurred with the Anishinaabek people since contact (all Native peoples)Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart offers this Definition:The collective emotional and psychological injury both over the life span and across generations, resulting from a cataclysmic history of genocideHistorical Trauma and Unresolved Grief Intervention mention Takini Network over 50 workshops across theNation for healing purposes. This term came about in 1985.
37Historical Trauma Causes: • Legacy of genocide from U.S. Govt. policies:Legacy of broken treatiesLoss of land: Indian Removal Act, 1830: whichwas the policy of the U.S. government torelocate Native American tribes living east ofthe Mississippi River to lands west of theriver forcibly, targeting the Five Civilized Tribesbut affect several other tribes.The Potawatomi Trail of Death Sept 4 to Nov 4,1838, 859 members of the Potawatomi from theIndiana region were forced to move to Kansas& Oklahoma, led to death of over 40, mostlychildren due to stress & typhoid fever.Typhoid fever and the stress of the forced march led to the death of over 40 individuals, mostly children. The Rev. Benjamin M. Petit, S.J. 5 Civilized tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Muscogee CreekThe Sandy Lake Tragedy was the culmination of a series of events centered in Sandy Lake, Minnesota, that resulted in the deaths in 1850 of several hundred Lake Superior Chippewa. Officials of the Zachary Taylor Administration and Minnesota Territory sought to relocate several bands of the tribe to areas west of the Mississippi River.
39RESERVATIONSAs treaty after treaty ceded land which the Ojibwa never identified as their own possession but rather as caretakers of Mother Earth, the final Treaty of 1854 created the reservation life-style and made a substantial impact upon our people. This occurred all across Indian Country.
40RESERVATIONSThe reservations stripped them of their way of life, disintegrated all concepts of cultural leadership as it was known through the clan system, forced localization, prevented normal commerce of gathering and hunting, and sought to establish an agrarian culture on a people who had no experience with agriculture on land that was hostile to agriculture.The Dawes Act of 1887 broke up the reservations into individual allotments of land.Note: Agrarian, pro-farmer: promoting the interests of farmers, especially by seeking a more equitable basis of land ownership – referred to primarily the Ojibwa, not the Potawatomi
41Loss of Culture/Language/Spirituality – fear of Indians having secret ceremonies or “uprisings” so policy was developed to prohibit ceremonial practices. Many tribal peoples went “underground” with their ceremonies to survive.Effects:• Unsettled traumaUnresolved grief• Increase of substances (alcohol), child abuse, suicide, unhealthy lifestyles and domestic violence, other forms of violence (lateral).1881 Federal ban on spiritual practices among native peoples; anger turned inward and towards each other
42Boarding Schools1st school: Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1879 by Capt. Benjamin Pratt in an attempt to forcibly assimilate the Native people; approx 140 tribes were affected; was considered the model school of 26 boarding schools across the U.S.Children were recruited by trickery; hundreds of children died at the school; abuses of all forms took place; harsh military structure; punishment hard labor/confinementIe: Indians lost their land bec of lack of education, or couldn’t read or write the treaties so the schools would be a benefit to the people. Some escaped having their children attend the schools, ie, the Hopi surrendered the men to a prison rather than have their children sent away from their families. Died from diseases, separation anxiety and lack of immunity, or attempting to escape;
43Boarding SchoolsLife at the boarding schools was often a shock. One girl recalled being held down as her hair was cut short. She said, "among our people" only "cowards" wore short hair. Another student remembered that attending a boarding school was like being "suddenly dumped" into "another world, helpless, defenseless, bewildered, trying desperately and instinctively to survive it all."
44Native language prohibited because of being Many were beaten, rapedNative language prohibited because of beingforced to speak the English language and werepunished if caught speaking their ownlanguageLasting effect:Destruction of Family structureLack of parenting skillsRelocation & AssimilationRacism/ viewed as 2nd classSpiritual prohibitionLoss of cultureAlcoholism, domestic violence, high suiciderates among our young, all forms of abuse.Children mouths were washed w lye soap for speaking their language. give people time to reflect & share any stories. Have Tony smudge w sage.
45Boarding SchoolsNative American boarding schools in the United States were seen as the means for the government to achieve assimilation of American Indians, which it believed was the best way for them to live in the changing society. By having the children in boarding schools, they could be educated together in majority culture. The boarding schools separated American Indians from non-Indian students.Find out how many boarding schools there were
46Boarding SchoolsThere were over five hundred Indian boarding schools across this continent. As mentioned previously twenty-six of them were operated by the government with Carlisle being the model for all of them, the residential schools in Canada included.The philosophy was the same for all residential schools ~ “Kill the Indian, save the man!”“Kill the Indian, and Save the Man”: Capt. Richard H. Pratt on the Education of Native Americans
47Kill the Indian, Save the Man: The Genocidal Impact of American Indian Residential Schools is a 2004 book by Ward Churchill. It traces the history of removing Native American children from their homes to residential schools (in Canada) or Indian boarding schools (in the USA) as part of government policies, 1880s-1980s, which the author views as genocidal.
48By 1900 thousands of Native Americans were studying at almost 150 boarding schools around the United States. The U.S. Training and Industrial School founded in 1879 at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, was the model for most of these schools. Boarding schools like Carlisle provided vocational and manual training and sought to systematically strip away tribal culture. They insisted that students drop their Indian names, forbade the speaking of native languages, and cut off their long hair. Not surprisingly, such schools often met fierce resistance from Native American parents and youth.
49But some Indian young people responded positively, or at least ambivalently, to the boarding schools, and the schools also fostered a sense of shared Indian identity that transcended tribal boundaries. The following excerpt (from a paper read by Carlisle founder Capt. Richard H. Pratt at an 1892 convention) spotlights Pratt’s pragmatic and frequently brutal methods for “civilizing” the “savages,” including his analogies to the education and “civilizing” of African Americans.
50Excerpt (from a paper read by Carlisle founder Capt. Richard H Excerpt (from a paper read by Carlisle founder Capt. Richard H. Pratt at an 1892 convention):“A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that high sanction of his destruction has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man….”
51Boarding SchoolsNative American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973.Especially through investigations of the later twentieth century, there have been many documented cases of sexual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.By 2007, the number of Native American children in boarding schools had declined to 9,500.
52Boarding SchoolsA similar system in Canada was known as the Canadian residential school system.On June 11, 2008, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a 3,600-word formal apology to First Nation, Métis and Inuit people for the legacy of Indian Residential Schools, which he called a "sad chapter in our history."The United States government has not issued any acknowledgement of this atrocity to date or any apology.
53BOARDING SCHOOLS IN MICHIGAN MT. PLEASANT GOVERNMENT SCHOOLDestroyed family systemAbuse of various formsEducation – trained for lower class jobsLoss of culture & languageHOLY CHILDHOOD SCHOOL, HARBOR SPRINGSLoss of spirituality & ceremony, identity & abuse of all forms occurred there.
54Mt Pleasant Government Boarding School On January 3, 1893, the U.S. government opened an Indian boarding school at Mt. Pleasant, Michigan. It offered a nine-year program, beginning with kindergarten. By 1911 the Mt. Pleasant school had eleven buildings, includingboth the girls and boys dormitories.Hearing stories today aboutthis school is both touching& painful ~ i.e., my motherdescribed it educational whileMy dad described it as brutal.
55Resistance to the Boarding Schools “If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white man he would have made me so in the first place. He put in your heart certain wishes and plans; in my heart he put other and different desires. Each man is good in the sight of the Great Spirit. It is not necessary, that eagles should be crows." ..Sitting Bull (Teton Sioux)the Hopi surrendered the men to a prison rather than have their children sent away from their families.
56Some Indian parents opposed sending their children away to learn "the white man's ways." However, the poverty & hopelessness of living on reservations (or Indian settlements) led other parents to hope that these boarding schools promised their children a better life. However, most of the time the government took Indian children & forced them to attend the school miles away so the parents could not afford to visit them.
57The Mt. Pleasant Indian School closed in 1933. English was the school's official language, and students might have their mouth washed out with soap if they spoke their native Indian language.Violating the rules led to punishment, which could be harsh. Sometimes students were beaten with a strap or rubber hose. Some endured the school; others ran away.The Mt. Pleasant Indian School closed in 1933.Share about my mother & dad’s experiences and how it affected me.
58Holy Childhood Catholic Boarding School, Harbor Springs This Indian school was founded in 1829 by Father Pierre Dejean. The Indians built a church and the first school building, a hewn-log structure 46' by 20'. The school was both a boarding and day school, with 25 boarders in its initial enrollment of 63 Indian boys and girls, who were taught, in French, the three "R's" and vocational skills. The original intent was described as “good” in order to provide Indian children an education.
59Holy Childhood Catholic Boarding School, Harbor Springs Father Frederic Baraga came in 1831 , the future "Apostle of the Ottawas and Chippewas.” Catholicism was taught.Students were also encouraged to take a Christian name in place of their Indian name.Abuses occurred here also & loss of culture & spirituality.The school was torn down in 2007Note similar abuses took place as well as not – mixed experiences
60Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart found a distinct link between Historical Trauma & the Jewish Holocaust.Brave Heart suspected that, like the children of Jewish Holocaust survivors, generations of Americans Indians have suffered from what happened to their ancestors, i.e., trauma & Grief is passed on to children & grandchildren of survivors; which continues today through alcohol-related accidents, homicide, and suicide. Sometimes referred to as “Blood Memory” or unresolved grief.Brave Heart suspected that, like the children of Jewish Holocaust survivors, generations of Americans Indians have suffered from what happened to their ancestors and also from the traumatic losses that continue today through alcohol-related accidents, homicide, and suicide.
61• She also discusses what ‘internalized oppression’ is and how people start identifying with the oppressor, which results in self-hatred and hatred of others like oneself. In our communities we have a lot of lateral oppression, lateral violence people hurting other community members and placing aggression on to one another.Freire’s theory is that it’s dangerous to direct aggression at the oppressor. Since the aggression has to go somewhere, it goes out toward others like you. It also can go within and people suffer from depression and anxiety.** Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the OppressedPaulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed - his analysis in his exploration of the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized; how oppression has been justified
62Historical Trauma & Alcohol Use of alcohol was used as a political tool, economic and sexual exploitationDrinking patterns began to emerge as a ‘problem’ – binge drinking, violent behaviorIncreased as conflicts, small pox & other diseases, broken treaties, loss of land, forced relocation, poverty & ‘utter demoralization’Myths also began to emerge, i.e. “Drunken Indian”
63TODAY How Historical Trauma still impacts us today: High rates of alcoholism/addictionPTSD – referred as Post-Colonial Stress Disorder (PCSD)DepressionAnxietySuicide Rates highAbuse of all forms: physical, sexual, domestic violenceBreakdown of family systems – Boarding School SyndromeLoss of culture, language, spiritualityYour client may not know anything about the culture, or may not be ready to know about the culture but ask and let him/her know you are interested and are willing to help find; your client may or may not be aware of our historical trauma as such and wonders ‘what is wrong’ – listen and learn yourself and discover the client’s journey with him/her; provide hope that there is a way out and you can help – do not think the person is ‘stoic’ and doesn’t want to share because of a longer pause affect when trying to assess, wait for him/her to respond at their pace; don’t expect eye contact if they are not ready for it – honor them anyway and wait until he/she is ready; don’t have ‘poor thing’ attitude – that is easily detected – respect;
64According to a past report by the Dept According to a past report by the Dept. of Justice the Native American population still experiences a mortality rate that is 400 per cent higher than any other population, indicating unique to this population.
65SOLUTIONS Dr. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart: “Once you recognize where these emotions come from, then you can find a healthy way to deal with them. We believe that our traditional cultural and spiritual ways have natural ways to help people do that. They were very wise in that way.”The healing we experience also heals our ancestors.Ref: Roxanne Gould-Rock, Ph.D.
66Clinicians:When you discover you have a Native American in your office:In the assessment process, wait patiently for them to answer the questions. NA tend to have a longer “pause time” in response to questions. Rapid-fire asking of questions will turn them off. NA tend to observe, “check you out” first or consider how much they want to share with you. Remember, because of our history with “officials” we don’t trust you, even more than the “regular” alcoholic or addict.Expecting them to “look you in the eye” could be a sign of disrespect.
67Things to remember when working the Native American client: Tribe – ask what tribe they are. They may or may not know because of our history. This is especially true in an urban area where there are many tribal people. There are over 500 tribes to consider; we’ve just discussed the 3 main tribes here in Michigan. In an urban area you will probably see many different tribal people that are not from Michigan.If they are familiar with their tribal heritage, ask them to share it with you. If they don’t know, they may feel some shame about it because this was possibly passed down from their parents or grandparents.
68Remember the language was taken from them or were told they were “savages” or “drunken Indians” or other discriminatory things.Unfortunately, racism is still alive and well here in Michigan and many of us can recall discrimination or racist remarks.I remember up to the 1950’s -60’s Indians could not be served in some places, i.e. the local tavern or bar. I remember being spit upon as an 8-yr little girl, imagine the traumatic scar that left upon me! This was a common occurrence for many of us.So trust is a major issue you will have to deal with and how you do so will reflect if you are successful with this client.
69Ideas for Social Workers & Therapists • Increase cultural sensitivity-- Research personal historical trauma-- Attend community activities-- Know your community resources-- Assessments ask about boarding school, didparents attend, etc.Spiritual HealingEncourage seeking cultural roots and/orceremonies for restoration of identity.• Story telling (this is to be done by a NativeStoryteller)Acknowledging the pain and sharing it ishealing.
70RECOVERY CONCEPTS“Recovery is like a fire; someone has to start it.” From The Honour of All, the 1985 Alkali Lake Video“The community is the treatment center.”‘Indianizing’ Alcoholics AnonymousRed Road Philosophy – Gene Thin ElkWellbriety Movement – Don CoyhisAA – A.A. for the Native American, 1989 pamphlet – early (1950’s) there were questions re the appropriateness of AA for Native people – would AA work for us? Native adaptations of AA meeting rituals (Jilek-AAll, 1981), native language, National/International Native American Indian AA Conference 1990; NA Indian General Service Board of AA, literature for Native Americans in AA literature, NA stories in the Big BookRed Road – Gene Thin Elk – Lakota Teachings for the ‘common person(s), amongst common People(s), living in common way of life within our communities, to function and live with common sense.” We are sacred, we come from the Creator who exists in all of creation and has withing the essence of the Creator & the consciousness of knowing that it is a part of the Original source & is also becoming aware of the individual self with the whole. All Life forms have a purpose, place & time in creation.Wellbriety Movement – “We now have circles of wellness activities that have sprung up in many of the communities. Those centers in the communities are expanding. As this develops, we always try to listen to the grassroots so we may create what needs to be laced into their hands.” Don Coyhis (book) Native Adaptations of AA ‘s 12 Steps.
71Red Road Philosophy“The Red Road is a holistic approach to mental, physical, spiritual and emotional wellness based on Native American healing concepts and traditions, having prayer as the basis of all healing. Native American psychology is essential in reaching the inner person (spirit) using specific sound, movement and color. All these essences are present in the Medicine Wheel, which is innate to Native Americans. The traditions and values of the Native American People ensure balance by living these cultural traditions through the Red Road. Healing is a way of life for the Native American who understands and lives the cultural traditions and values.” - Gene Thin Elk, Lakota NationFrom Alcohol Problems in Native America: The Untold Story of Resistance and Recovery – The Truth About the Lie” Don L. Coyhis & William L. White p. kRequote from Arbogast, D. (1995). Wounded Warriors. Omaha, NE: Little Turtle Publications. P. 319
72The Anishnaabe LifeThe fundamental essence of Anishnaabe life is unity. The oneness of all things. In our view history is expressed in the way that life is lived each day. Key to this is the belief that harmony with all created things has been achieved. The people cannot be separated from the land with its cycle of seasons or from the other mysterious cycles of living things of birth and growth and death and new birth. The people know where they come from.
73The story is deep in their hearts The story is deep in their hearts. It has been told in legends and dances, in dreams and in symbols. It is in the songs a grandmother sings to the child in her arms and in the web of family names, stories, and memories that the child learns as he or she grows older. above all of the long, stubborn struggle through which the Anishnaabe tried to preserve their own ways and their own identity.Helping your client to find his or her way back to this philosophy is a slow process but it is a rewarding one.
74Anishnaabe WaysUse of Anishnaabek culture and teachings as a way to support recovery:Medicine Wheel concept (coupled with 12 Step philosophy), Talking CirclesUse of ceremonies: Indian name (important for Identity), prayer lodge, Sacred FiresLearning the 7 Grandfather/Grandmother Teachings & apply to recoveryOther cultural teachings: pow-wows, Ghost Suppers, solstice times, Creation Story & other storytelling experiences, Sacred plants, Clan systemLaughter is good
75MNO-BMAADZIWIN - GOOD LIFE 12 STEPS OF RECOVERYMNO-BMAADZIWIN - GOOD LIFEKewadinongStep 10Step 11Step 12Step 1Step 2Step 3EpangishmokStep 7Step 8Step 9WaabinongStep 4Step 5Step 6Zhaawanong
76Sacred Plants Ceremonial purposes, personal Specific teachings Sage – cleansing, purificationSweetgrass – smoke, purification, balanceTobacco – prayer offering, pipe, bundlesCedar – cleansing, cedar oil, cedar water
82LOVE To know Love is to know peace “Who better to teach us about love than a child with their hand reaching out to us – they accept us in their unconditional love”Listening to each other, helping each other, sharing with each other is the Anishnaabe way
83RESPECTLearning about how to respect yourself in recovery as we learn to respect our family & others – one day at a time“The fire teaches us respect – we can cook our food, it lights up our night but fire can also destroy if proper care is not given”To honor all of the creation = Respect
84HONESTYFirst step in recovery is being honest about ourselves and acknowledging we need helpFacing a situation in honesty is healing“The butterfly teaches us life is a continuous metamorphosis if we are honest with ourselves - removing our own caterpillar guise we too can become free – free as the butterfly”
85TRUTH“The eagle has become for the Anishnaabek a symbol of truth and strength therefore holding an eagle feather in our hand gives us a huge responsibility for our voice”Hence, holding an eagle feather in a Talking Circle we speak our truthTo know all these things is deep withinTo know who we are starts to surface in recovery
86HUMILITYHumility is to know yourself as a sacred part of the Creation – we are but “a grain of sand” in creation doing our part“As we enter our space to be in union with our Creator and Mother Earth we open our inner doorway to our own Sacredness which is beyond our understanding - It is to be touched by the Creator”Accepting ourselves just as we are
87WISDOM To cherish knowledge is to know wisdom “The turtle teaches us wisdom we seek wisdom from our elders but yet sometimes wisdom comes through a child if we remain open to the voice of our youth”The inner knowing of who we are following our heart – our pathPrayer & meditation leads us to wisdom
88BRAVERYTo face the foe (sometimes it is within ourselves) with integrity“The hummingbird teaches us of bravery she will go up against a bear if the bear is threatening her babies the hummingbird will attack the bear with her long needle-like beak until the bear retreats”To see clearly what alcoholism/addiction has done to us = bravery
89CeremoniesNaming Ceremonies (describes your characteristics, i.e., helpful, etc; your role in the community; defines your purpose in life)Talking Circles – decision-making process; used in therapy to regain what we lost in addictionSmudge – smoke in a sacred wayCherish sacred items
90Sweat Lodge – prayer; led by spiritual person; traditionally it was primarily male – due to alcoholism the male forgot their responsibilities to the sweat lodge & women assumed the responsibilities of the lodge to maintain the health of the community. This is the reason that today there are mixed lodges in honor of the women for what they did for us. This is a cleansing ceremony.Sacred Fires – primarily used whenever there is a ceremony, for when one walks on, resembles the sun in winter.
91SPIRITUALITYAll we do in recovery as we discover ourselves whether through the 12 Step process, finding church, tribal traditional ways or ceremonial ways or a combination both or through nature is all spiritual. Each must find their own spiritual path. If they are earnestly seeking they will find it. It takes time, it does not come overnight or quickly (like most of us want). Each must define their own spirituality for themselves. Treating ourselves and others with Respect is spirituality.
92Books of Reference‘Alcohol Problems in Native America’ – Don L. Coyhis & William L. White‘Healing Through Art’ – Zoey Wood-Salomon‘People of the Three Fires’ – James A. Clifton, George L. Cornell, James M. McClurkenThe Mishomis Book – Edward Benton-BanaiInternet
93ReferencesAnishnaabek Healing Circle Access to Recovery project website:Anishinaabek Access To Recovery, click on ATR on Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc website:Anishinaabemowin, Learn the Anishinaabe Language:Cultural Assessment – ‘Spirit of the Corn – Respect’, ‘The Boys First Deer – Sharing’, ‘The Lady Slipper – courage & service’, ‘The Butterfly – kindness’, ‘The Door without a Lock – honesty & trust’; Behavioral Health Communication Network & other projects
94MIIGWECH! Earl Meshigaud, Hannahville Elder Jim McClurken, Historian & Our FriendJim Pigeon, Gun Lake Cultural AdvisorInter-Tribal Council ATR Staff
95I do what I do because….My grandchildren, for the children, especially Anishnaabek childrenTo help break the cycle of addiction in our communityTo promote “Mno-Bimaadziwin” – a Good Life