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Aerial Application An important technique for quick treatment of large areas of pest infestation.

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Presentation on theme: "Aerial Application An important technique for quick treatment of large areas of pest infestation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aerial Application An important technique for quick treatment of large areas of pest infestation

2 Introduction World fleet of 24,000 aircraft (mainly USA and Russia) Approximately 375 new planes built each year in US In the US, approximately 300 million acres treated each year for a $1 billion industry

3 The beginning of ag aviation-- l 1921 – Curtiss JN-6 “Super Jenny” first application by aircraft of pesticide. (Arsenate dust on catalpa trees to kill sphinx moth larvae.) l 1922 – Curtiss biplanes used to control boll weevils near Tallulah, LA. l 1923 – Huff-Daland Duters, Inc. (forerunner to Delta Airlines) applied first commercial dusting of crops with their own specialty aircraft.

4 About Ag Aviation Operators l Formerly called “Crop Dusters” l 3000 US Ag Pilots (110 in KS) l Highly-trained professionals with very large investments in their business l Very concerned with human health, environment, and a desire to perform their service in a responsible manner. l 90% owner-operators l 60% in business > 20 yrs l > 10,000 hrs of flight time

5 Types of Aircraft Fixed Wing –single or multiple engine –high or low wing, bi-wing –speed of 100 to 150+ MPH –most have 300 to 1300 Hp engines –payload of 1200 to 9500 lb Rotary (Helicopters) –smaller load –higher maintenance –field loading –rough terrain –downwash

6 Application areas Treat cotton fields – boll weevil eradication Forestry is a large user for aerial application Rights-of-way areas Approximately 90% is fixed wing; 10% rotary Drift is a limitation

7 The Development In 1940, approximately 80% dust; 20% spray In 1950, approximately 50% dust; 50% spray In 1970, approximately 20% dust; 80% spray In 1980, almost no dust; 100% spray

8 Agricultural Aircraft Ayres Corporation, Albany, GA Air Tractor - Olney, TX Cessna Dromader, Poland Gippsland, Australia Piper Brave Ag Cat

9 Engine Types Radial Turbine

10 Airplane Number Designations l Air Tractor –300, 400, 500, 600, 800 (hopper size) –301, 401, 501 (radial engines) –302, 402, 502, 602, 802 (turbine engines) –Turbine power »T34, T45, T60 (Pratt & Whitney PT-6 engines) »G10, G12 (Garrett Power) –403, 503, 603, 803 (dual cockpits-only turbines) –402A, 502A, 502B (frame or wing changes) l Thrush –S2R (500 gallon with PT6-34 turbine) –S2R-500-G12 (500 gallon with Garrett power) –660-T65 (660 gallon with PT6-65

11 Aircrafts Facts and Figures l Aircraft prices range from $100,000 to $1,000,000 l Almost all new ag planes are turbine equipped (engines alone cost $125,000 or more) l Designed for 30 to 100 take-offs and landings per day from rough strips l Equipment: GPS guidance for +/- 2.5 ft flight lines, flow controls, precisely calibrated for accurate applications.

12 Maintenance l Ag aircraft can be easily cleaned to prevent corrosion l Spray booms are quickly interchangeable

13 Latest Equipment l Aryes 660 Thrush (1230 hp) –660 gallon hopper –228 gallon fuel –12,500 lbs take-off »1500 ft. distance –175 cruise speed –Wingspan 54 ft. l Air Tractor 802(a or f) (1300 hp) –800 gallon hopper –254 gallon fuel –16,000 lbs take-off (9500 payload) »2000 ft. distance –191 cruise speed –Wingspan 59.2 ft.

14 Liquid System pump, tank, hose, boom, filters, regulators, controllers, and nozzles tank: emergency dump, site gauge, air vent, agitation system pump:centrifugal (50 GPM) –propeller or hydraulic driven Equipment must be capable of lifting, transporting, and dispensing pesticides

15 Booms 75% of wingspan or less and no longer than rotor length Behind and below wing Unbalanced spacing across the boom Must have check valves on nozzles Boom and pressure control: –positive –quick shut-off

16 Nozzles

17 Capacities 1-10 GPA; MPH; foot swaths; 8-12 ft. high - liquid ft. high - granule

18 Dry Application

19 Field Collector - Liquid

20 Aerial Report – page 1

21 Aerial Report – page 2

22 Aerial Report – page 3

23 Advantages speed and timeliness able to work wet areas less crop damage able to handle emergencies

24 Disadvantages drift calibration spray distribution swath marking obstacles

25 Calibration acres/min = (MPH x SW)/495 GPM = acres/min x GPA

26 0.125 Orifice,30 0 Deflector

27 0 0 deflector, 40psi

28 Straight stream nozzles

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31 Drop Boom:

32 Ag-Tips l Texas A & M Research l AT402B – 53 CP nozzles l Wider and more uniform l 12+% increase in swath width l Increased deposition on spot cards l Decreased number of fines l 38% less deposited outside l AT 502/503B Service Letter –Reduced wing fatigue life

33 Electric Boom: l Jim Carleton-USDA l Spectrum Electronics l Charges rings around nozzles (7-9,000 volts) l Positive/negative boom l Plants neutral l Best with low and ultra- low volumes

34 Flow Controller Flow Sensor Obstructions:

35 Popular Aerial Web Sites

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