Presentation on theme: "Aerial Application An important technique for quick treatment of large areas of pest infestation."— Presentation transcript:
Aerial Application An important technique for quick treatment of large areas of pest infestation
Introduction World fleet of 24,000 aircraft (mainly USA and Russia) Approximately 375 new planes built each year in US In the US, approximately 300 million acres treated each year for a $1 billion industry
The beginning of ag aviation-- l 1921 – Curtiss JN-6 “Super Jenny” first application by aircraft of pesticide. (Arsenate dust on catalpa trees to kill sphinx moth larvae.) l 1922 – Curtiss biplanes used to control boll weevils near Tallulah, LA. l 1923 – Huff-Daland Duters, Inc. (forerunner to Delta Airlines) applied first commercial dusting of crops with their own specialty aircraft.
About Ag Aviation Operators l Formerly called “Crop Dusters” l 3000 US Ag Pilots (110 in KS) l Highly-trained professionals with very large investments in their business l Very concerned with human health, environment, and a desire to perform their service in a responsible manner. l 90% owner-operators l 60% in business > 20 yrs l > 10,000 hrs of flight time
Types of Aircraft Fixed Wing –single or multiple engine –high or low wing, bi-wing –speed of 100 to 150+ MPH –most have 300 to 1300 Hp engines –payload of 1200 to 9500 lb Rotary (Helicopters) –smaller load –higher maintenance –field loading –rough terrain –downwash
Application areas Treat cotton fields – boll weevil eradication Forestry is a large user for aerial application Rights-of-way areas Approximately 90% is fixed wing; 10% rotary Drift is a limitation
The Development In 1940, approximately 80% dust; 20% spray In 1950, approximately 50% dust; 50% spray In 1970, approximately 20% dust; 80% spray In 1980, almost no dust; 100% spray
Agricultural Aircraft Ayres Corporation, Albany, GA Air Tractor - Olney, TX Cessna Dromader, Poland Gippsland, Australia Piper Brave Ag Cat
Airplane Number Designations l Air Tractor –300, 400, 500, 600, 800 (hopper size) –301, 401, 501 (radial engines) –302, 402, 502, 602, 802 (turbine engines) –Turbine power »T34, T45, T60 (Pratt & Whitney PT-6 engines) »G10, G12 (Garrett Power) –403, 503, 603, 803 (dual cockpits-only turbines) –402A, 502A, 502B (frame or wing changes) l Thrush –S2R-500-34 (500 gallon with PT6-34 turbine) –S2R-500-G12 (500 gallon with Garrett power) –660-T65 (660 gallon with PT6-65
Aircrafts Facts and Figures l Aircraft prices range from $100,000 to $1,000,000 l Almost all new ag planes are turbine equipped (engines alone cost $125,000 or more) l Designed for 30 to 100 take-offs and landings per day from rough strips l Equipment: GPS guidance for +/- 2.5 ft flight lines, flow controls, precisely calibrated for accurate applications.
Maintenance l Ag aircraft can be easily cleaned to prevent corrosion l Spray booms are quickly interchangeable
Latest Equipment l Aryes 660 Thrush (1230 hp) –660 gallon hopper –228 gallon fuel –12,500 lbs take-off »1500 ft. distance –175 cruise speed –Wingspan 54 ft. l Air Tractor 802(a or f) (1300 hp) –800 gallon hopper –254 gallon fuel –16,000 lbs take-off (9500 payload) »2000 ft. distance –191 cruise speed –Wingspan 59.2 ft.
Liquid System pump, tank, hose, boom, filters, regulators, controllers, and nozzles tank: emergency dump, site gauge, air vent, agitation system pump:centrifugal (50 GPM) –propeller or hydraulic driven Equipment must be capable of lifting, transporting, and dispensing pesticides
Booms 75% of wingspan or less and no longer than rotor length Behind and below wing Unbalanced spacing across the boom Must have check valves on nozzles Boom and pressure control: –positive –quick shut-off
Ag-Tips l Texas A & M Research l AT402B – 53 CP nozzles l Wider and more uniform l 12+% increase in swath width l Increased deposition on spot cards l Decreased number of fines l 38% less deposited outside l AT 502/503B Service Letter –Reduced wing fatigue life
Electric Boom: l Jim Carleton-USDA l Spectrum Electronics l Charges rings around nozzles (7-9,000 volts) l Positive/negative boom l Plants neutral l Best with low and ultra- low volumes