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Ray Daw, MA Regional Director Edventures Group Developed by Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, PhD, Columbia University, NYC President/Director,

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Presentation on theme: "Ray Daw, MA Regional Director Edventures Group Developed by Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, PhD, Columbia University, NYC President/Director,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ray Daw, MA Regional Director Edventures Group Developed by Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, PhD, Columbia University, NYC President/Director, The Takini Network

2 Ottenbacher: Brave Heart 3 Major Hypothesis: I. Education increases awareness of trauma II. Sharing affects provides relief III. Grief resolution through collective mourning/healing creates *positive group identity *commitment to community Purpose: Identifying with victimization collective memory/healthy ego

3 Historical Trauma Causes: Legacy of genocide Effects: Unsettled trauma Increase of child abuse and domestic violence Definition: The collective emotional and psychological injury both over the life span and across generations, resulting from a cataclysmic history of genocide (Dr. Maria Yellowhorse-Braveheart) “Intergenerational Trauma and Historical Grief in American Indians: A Review of Conceptualizations from Dr. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart”, powerpoint, Melanie Ottenbacher

4  Historical trauma is cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma  Historical unresolved grief is the grief that accompanies the trauma. (Brave Heart, 1995,1998, 1999, 2000) © Takini Network

5  Confronting historical trauma  Understanding the trauma  Releasing our pain  Transcending the trauma © Takini Network


7 1 st contact  Life shock  Genocide  No time for grief Economic Competition  Sustenance loss (physical/spiritual) Invasion War Period  Extermination  Refugee symptoms Subjugation and Reservation Period  Confined / translocated  Lack of security Boarding School Period  Destroyed family system Forced Relocation and Termination Period  Transfer to urban areas  Prohibition of religious freedom Ottenbacher.ppt

8 Colonization 1. Introduce  Disease  Alcohol 2. Main traumatic events  Assassination of Tatanka Iyotake (Sitting Bull)  Wounded Knee Massacre Boarding school 1. 1 st school: Pennsylvania  Beaten  Raped  Native language prohibited 2. Lasting effect  Ill-prepared for parenting Relocation & Assimilation  Racism/ viewed as 2 nd class  Black Hills Confiscation  Spiritual prohibition  Change of Government

9 Imprisonment of tribes after conquest Repression of indigenous practices, beliefs, language, and identity Paternalism by governmental institutions, religious organizations, and reorganization of established governance.


11 Poor affect tolerance Psychic numbing Hypervigilance Substance abuse Fixation to trauma Depression Death identity Asking

12  Native Americans as a group are at increased risk of injury, but Native American males are at even greater risk for many types of injuries. Compared to their female counterparts, Native American males ages 20 years and older are (CDC 2003) twice as likely to die from a motor vehicle crash. nearly four times more likely to die from pedestrian- related injury.  nearly twice as likely to die from fire and burn injuries.

13  five times more likely to drown.  four times more likely to commit suicide.  three times more likely to be murdered.  A person has a higher risk of suicide if their parent, close relative or close friend has taken their own life.  s.htm

14 14  Mental Illness Co-occurring Disorder Raymond Daw Sept 2007 IV High, High High Addiction High Mental Illness I Low, Low Low Addiction Low Mental Illness III High, Low High Addiction Low Mental Illness II Low, high Low Addiction High Mental Illness low high low high


16 16 Acculturation Indigenous Eurocentric high low Low Indigenous acculturation & high Eurocentric acculturation High Indigenous acculturation & Low Eurocentric acculturation

17  Disease Model-based  AA Philosophy driven  12 Step design  Confrontational styles  Morals driven  Individual focused  Recovery oriented  Relapses consider bad  Indigenous approaches not considered


19 Substance abuse or misuse is not condoned within the indigenous belief system. The norm is for respect yourself by not using substances that are not indigenous or acceptable to the tribe (Doo dilzin da: abuse of the natural world).

20  High rates of abstinence  Land base (reservations)  Extended families  Indigenous practices  Strong ethnic identity  Growing middle class  History of racism (segregation)




24 What Matters Increasing American Indian identity Decreasing structural poverty Doing so will decrease the probability of alcohol symptoms and drug use. AMERICAN INDIAN SERVICES UTILIZATION, PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS PROJECT (AI- SUPERPFP), University of Colorado at Denver and Health Services Center Talking Circle

25  [Induced Self Negation------------Self Affirmation ]  Mystification----------------------------------Education  Dependency-----------------------------Self Reliance  Subordination-------------------Equal Status/Rights  Powerlessness-------------------Self Determination

26  Takini is a Native American non-profit organization, designed to address healing from historical trauma and historical unresolved grief among the Indigenous people.  Takini provides therapeutic work, prevention, research, publication and community education. Maria Yellowhorse-Braveheart;

27 © Takini Network For More Information  Dr. Maria Yellowhorse-Braveheart Phone: (212) 851-2243 Email: Raymond Daw, MA Cell; (505) 879-0167

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