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Historical Trauma and Healing the Hurts

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Trauma and Healing the Hurts"— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Trauma and Healing the Hurts
Ray Daw, MA Regional Director Edventures Group Developed by Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, PhD, Columbia University, NYC President/Director, The Takini Network

2 Ottenbacher: Brave Heart 3 Major Hypothesis:
Dr. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart Ottenbacher: Brave Heart 3 Major Hypothesis: Education increases awareness of trauma Sharing affects provides relief Grief resolution through collective mourning/healing creates *positive group identity *commitment to community Purpose: Identifying with victimization collective memory/healthy ego

3 Historical Trauma Causes: Legacy of genocide Effects: Unsettled trauma
Definition: The collective emotional and psychological injury both over the life span and across generations, resulting from a cataclysmic history of genocide (Dr. Maria Yellowhorse-Braveheart) Causes: Legacy of genocide Effects: Unsettled trauma Increase of child abuse and domestic violence “Intergenerational Trauma and Historical Grief in American Indians: A Review of Conceptualizations from Dr. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart”, powerpoint, Melanie Ottenbacher

4 Definitions Historical trauma is cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma Historical unresolved grief is the grief that accompanies the trauma. (Brave Heart, 1995,1998, 1999, 2000) © Takini Network

5 Historical Trauma Intervention: Four Major Intervention Components
Confronting historical trauma Understanding the trauma Releasing our pain Transcending the trauma © Takini Network

6 Confronting historical trauma

7 Six Phases of Historical Unresolved Grief
Ottenbacher.ppt 1st contact Life shock Genocide No time for grief Economic Competition Sustenance loss (physical/spiritual) Invasion War Period Extermination Refugee symptoms Subjugation and Reservation Period Confined / translocated Lack of security Boarding School Period Destroyed family system Forced Relocation and Termination Period Transfer to urban areas Prohibition of religious freedom

8 1st Contact (Colonization), Boarding Schools, & Relocation (Ottenbacher.ppt)
1. 1st school: Pennsylvania Beaten Raped Native language prohibited 2. Lasting effect Ill-prepared for parenting Colonization 1. Introduce Disease Alcohol 2. Main traumatic events Assassination of Tatanka Iyotake (Sitting Bull) Wounded Knee Massacre Relocation & Assimilation Racism/ viewed as 2nd class Black Hills Confiscation Spiritual prohibition Change of Government

9 Imprisonment of tribes after conquest Repression of indigenous practices, beliefs, language, and identity Paternalism by governmental institutions, religious organizations, and reorganization of established governance.

10 Understanding the trauma

11 Features of Trauma Response
Poor affect tolerance Psychic numbing Hypervigilance Substance abuse Fixation to trauma Depression Death identity Asking

12 Risk Native Americans as a group are at increased risk of injury, but Native American males are at even greater risk for many types of injuries. Compared to their female counterparts, Native American males ages 20 years and older are (CDC 2003) twice as likely to die from a motor vehicle crash.   nearly four times more likely to die from pedestrian-related injury.   nearly twice as likely to die from fire and burn injuries.

13 Risk five times more likely to drown.
four times more likely to commit suicide.   three times more likely to be murdered. A person has a higher risk of suicide if their parent, close relative or close friend has taken their own life.

14 Co-occurring Disorder
high Addiction III High, Low High Addiction Low Mental Illness IV High, High High Addiction High Mental Illness Co-occurring Disorder Mental Illness high low II Low, high Low Addiction High Mental Illness I Low, Low Low Addiction Low Mental Illness Raymond Daw Sept 2007 low

15 Releasing our Pain

16 Acculturation Eurocentric Indigenous Low Indigenous acculturation &
high Eurocentric acculturation low high Eurocentric Indigenous high low Discussion on bi-culturalism is to transition from MH problems to begin presentation on engagement. High Indigenous acculturation & Low Eurocentric acculturation 16 16

17 Euro-centric Treatment
Disease Model-based AA Philosophy driven 12 Step design Confrontational styles Morals driven Individual focused Recovery oriented Relapses consider bad Indigenous approaches not considered

18 Indigenous Treatment Models

19 (Doo dilzin da: abuse of the natural world).
Substance abuse or misuse is not condoned within the indigenous belief system. The norm is for respect yourself by not using substances that are not indigenous or acceptable to the tribe (Doo dilzin da: abuse of the natural world).

20 Native American Resilience
High rates of abstinence Land base (reservations) Extended families Indigenous practices Strong ethnic identity Growing middle class History of racism (segregation)

21 Transcending the trauma

22 R e v e r e n c e

23 Medicine Wheel

24 What Matters Talking Circle Increasing American Indian identity Decreasing structural poverty Doing so will decrease the probability of alcohol symptoms and drug use. AMERICAN INDIAN SERVICES UTILIZATION, PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS PROJECT (AI-SUPERPFP) , University of Colorado at Denver and Health Services Center

25 Nature of (De) Colonialism (Evans)
[Induced Self Negation Self Affirmation ] Mystification Education Dependency Self Reliance Subordination Equal Status/Rights Powerlessness Self Determination

26 Takini Network Takini is a Native American non-profit organization, designed to address healing from historical trauma and historical unresolved grief among the Indigenous people. Takini provides therapeutic work, prevention, research, publication and community education. Maria Yellowhorse-Braveheart;

27 For More Information Dr. Maria Yellowhorse-Braveheart
Phone: (212) Raymond Daw, MA Cell; (505) © Takini Network

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