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Brave New World: Communism on Trial 26. Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

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Presentation on theme: "Brave New World: Communism on Trial 26. Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brave New World: Communism on Trial 26

2 Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

3 The Postwar Soviet Union  Economic recovery  New five-year plan, 1946  Create a new industrial base  Growth of heavy industry over consumer goods  Paranoia of Stalin contributes to repression  Stalin dies in 1953 and succeeded by Georgy Malenkov who quickly fell to rival Nikita Khrushchev ( )  Political reform  Agricultural reform  Problems  De-Stalinization  Foreign policy failures  Forced to retire due to “deteriorating health” in 1964

4 The Brezhnev Years,  Leonid Brezhnev ( )  Stability over reform  Cautious attempts at reform  Stagnant industrial and agricultural economy  A Controlled Society  Revival of Stalinism  Restrictive policy against Soviet Critics Andrei Sakharov and Alexander Solzhenitsyn  Free expression restricted Pravada (Truth) and Izvestia (News)

5 A Stagnant Economy  Brezhnev’s problems  Absence of incentives  Athletic achievement prized  Senior officials get perquisites

6 An Aging Leadership  Yuri Andopov ( )  Konstantin Chernenko ( )

7 Cultural and Society in the Soviet Bloc  Cultural Expression  Literary and scientific expression dependent on the state  Follow the party line  No criticism of existing social conditions  Soviet literature  Boris Pasternak ( ), Doctor Zhivago  Alexander Solzhenitsyn (b. 1918)  Eastern European states varied from country to country  Desire to create a classless society stripped the ruling class of their special status  Changes in education  Emergence of a new elite  Women  Not equal  Make up half the workforce  Traditional roles in the home remained

8 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. The States of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

9 The Disintegration of the Soviet Union  Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931)  Gorbachev Era  Perestroika (restructuring)  Glasnost (openness)  Political reforms  Call for a new Soviet parliament, 1988 Congress of People’s Deputies elected 1989  Political parties authorized, 1990  Gorbachev become the first president of the Soviet Union, March 1990  nationalist movements erupt December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigns and turns power over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia

10 The New Russia: From Empire to Nation  Russia under Boris Yeltsin  Committed to introducing a free market economy  New constitution, 1993 Hard-line resistance  Problems Growing economic inequality, rampant corruption, and Chechnya  Yeltsin resigned at the end of 1999; replaced by Vladimir Putin  Vowed to end corruption and strengthen the role of the government in managing the state  Sought to bring Chechnya back under Russian control  Centralized authority and silenced critics

11 Eastern Europe: From Soviet Satellites to Sovereign Nations  Poland  Solidarity  Free parliamentary elections, 1988  President freely elected by the populace, December, 1990  Hungary  Attempts at economic reform in the 1980s  Elections, March 1990  Czechoslovakia  Charter 77  Communist government collapses, December, 1989  East Germany  Oppressive regime of Erich Honecker led to massive demonstrations  Government opened the border with the west; Berlin Wall torn down  Germany reunited

12 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. The People’s Republic of China

13 The East is Red: China Under Communism  New Democracy  Patterned after Lenin’s New Economic Policy  Two-thirds of peasant households received land People’s tribunals against landlords and rich farmers  The Transition to Socialism  First Five-Year plan, 1953  Collectivization initiated, 1955  Great Leap Forward, Collectives combined to form people’s communes A failure; 15 million died of starvation

14 The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution  Red Guard  Policy disagreements  Mao wanted to erase any capitalist values and the remnants of “feudalist” Confucian ideas  Eliminated any profit incentives  Established a new school system that stressed practical education at the expense of science and the humanities  Tried to destroy all traditional society  Destruction of temples, religious sculptures, even street names

15 From Mao to Deng  Death of Mao in September 1976 brought a struggle for succession and the end of the Cultural Revolution  Leadership of Deng Xiaoping ( )  Four modernizations – industry, agriculture, technology, defense  Progress in ending problems of poverty and underdevelopment  Did not include democracy

16 Incident at Tiananmen Square  Increased criticism over corruption, nepotism, favored treatment of senior officials, and inflation  May 1989 student protests  Army crushes the movement and demonstrators harshly punished

17 From Marx to Confucius?  Jiang Zemin followed Deng Xiaoping  Rapid economic growth and control of dissent  New emphasis on Confucianism  Growing unrest among China’s national minorities

18 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Popular Demonstrations at Tiananmen Square, Spring 1989

19 Economics in Command  Post-Mao leader have placed economic performance over ideological purity  Attempts to stimulate industrial sector  Tolerate emergence of a small private sector  Opened up the country to foreign investment and technology  Stress educational reform  Changes in agriculture  Standard of living improved  Problems  Increasingly affluent middle class  Closing of state-run factories has led to millions of workers being dismissed each year  Environmental impact

20 Social Changes  Women permitted to vote and participate in the political process  Equal rights with men in marriage  Worked to destroy the influence of the traditional family system  Great Leap Forward  Post-Maoism shift away from revolutionary utopianism  Dress, religion, social change, socialist realism, literature, and art  Religious practices were allowed  Problems that come with a more open society

21 China’s Changing Culture  Emphasis on social realism but it did not extinguish the influence of traditional culture  During Cultural Revolution  Literature  Released from social realism by the death of Mao  In painting an interest in traditional and Western forms  Literature was to express views on the mistakes of the past  Bai Hua, Bitter Love, critical of the excesses of the Cultural Revolution

22 Discussion Questions  What kinds of reforms did Nikita Khrushchev advocate? What led to his fall from power?  What were the most important social changes in the postwar Soviet Union?  What challenges did Gorbachev face in his efforts to introduce reforms in the Soviet Union?  Why is Confucianism so appealing to China’s current leaders?

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