Presentation on theme: "Turkije Instituut – Utrecht 31 January 2008 ‘Taksim – Kars’ Modernization, democracy, and the future of Turkey Intellectuals and Westernization in Turkey."— Presentation transcript:
Turkije Instituut – Utrecht 31 January 2008 ‘Taksim – Kars’ Modernization, democracy, and the future of Turkey Intellectuals and Westernization in Turkey (1923-2008) Baskin Oran firstname.lastname@example.org
Intellectuals in Underdeveloped Countries: the Aydın - Aydın has no equivalent in Western languages. Origin: Aydınlanma (Age of Enlightenment). - Driver and engine of Westernization. - BUT may also be the brake.
Baskın Oran4 Class background Petty Bourgeoisie Small tradesmanAydın
Petty Bourgeoisie and the West - Small tradesman: Destroyed by the West - Aydın: Created by the West(ern education). - Creator of a simulation of the West in its country. “… is product of modernization before modernization reaches its country” (J.Kautsky) - Therefore: -Identifies itself with the West, its creator - (but, which West?) - Identifies itself with the Nation-state, its creature.. -(but, what kind of State?)..
A Dissection of the Aydın Vis-a-vis social classes: - An infra-class stratum: Between the rich and the poor - complexed - creative - A supra-class stratum. Revolution from Above = Changing the law of the country to change the country itself Bourgeoisie + King Centralized State Law & Order Trade “National” Market Common Culture Nation (16th C.) Nationalist Ideology (18th C.) Nation-State Imperialism Imperialism Western education The Aydın Nation-State (Unitary & Laicist) Nationalist Ideology “Nation” (Homogenous & Secular) Vis-a-vis the West: -Identification with the West, its creator - (which West?) -Identification with the Nation-state, its creature. -(what kind of State?).
Baskın Oran8 The 1st Wave of Westernization: Kemalist Revolution from Above to “Reach and Surpass the Contemporary Civilisation” (1920s & 30s) - 1920: National Assembly was opened: “Sovereignty definitely belongs to the nation” - 1922: Sultanate was abolished - 1923: Republic was declared - 1924: Caliphate was abolished - 1925: The first opposition party was closed (lasted 6,5 months) - 1925: 21 to 78 persons were hanged for protesting the “Hat Law” - 1926: Swiss Civil Code and Italian Penal Code were adopted - 1927: Kurds were deported after the 1925 Scheik Said uprising (also deported in ’34, ’45, and ’60) - 1928: Latin alphabet was adopted - 1930: The second/last opposition party was closed (lasted 3 months) - 1930: Preacher schools were closed - 1931: "Laicism" was included in the program of the single party - 1938: Atatürk was declared “Eternal Chief”, and Inönü “National Chief”.
Baskın Oran9 The Kemalist Revolution from Above: An Appraisal - Huge Successes - Contradiction: - Strong nation-state under heavy influence of the military vs. - “Contemporary Civilisation” - Responses against Kemalist revolution: - Ethnic reactions - Religious reactions. - Civilian/Democratic reactions.
Baskın Oran10 The 2nd Wave of Westernization: EU Reform Packages - The Copenhagen Criteria Description and Implementation - 5 key reform categories: More freedom of expression, less “national security state” (Ex. New art. 90 of the Constitution: “International treaties concerning fundamental rights and freedoms have priority over national laws of the same character”. Better protection from the State (Ex. Learning, publishing and broadcast in “different languages and dialects traditionally used by Turkish citizens” made possible in radio & TVs) Efforts to differentiate “thought” from “violence”, and “criticism” from “denigration” (Ex. Art. 159 (new law 301) amended: “Declarations of thought made with a view to criticize will not be considered an insult to Turkishness and State institutions) Containment of the military’s political power (Ex. The High Court of Auditors will be able to audit the military.). Making torture more difficult (Ex. Prison sentences given for torture cases can no more be postponed or converted into fines).
Baskın Oran11 EU Reform Packages and the Minority Report 1)Turkey’s minority definition (1923 Lausanne) fell well behind the actual W.European practice today 2) Turkey is violating even Lausanne itself - The Turkish constitution: Art. 3/1: “The language of the State is Turkish” and Art. 66: “Anyone related to the Turkish state with the national status is called a Turk” - Certain laws: The law on political parties; the law on religious foundations, etc. - The judiciary: Closing Kurdish parties; the practice of 1936 Declaration 3) Background to these violations: - Theoretical: Infra and Supra Identities - Historical/Political: The Sevres Syndrome: a) Reaction to globalization (EU); b) Fear from the zombies; c) Fear of losing the Dominant Millet status 4) Conclusion : - “Contemporary Civilisation” is incompatible with the present interpretation of the West (1930 Model) - Türk Türkiyeli.
Baskın Oran12 Two Westernization Movements: a comparison. Türkiyeli (“from Turkey”) Turk (Muslim Turk) Supra-identity: Muslim The human beingNation (homogenous and secular) Umma Citizen (voluntary) Citizen (compulsory) Subject Democratic state (pluralist) Nation-state (monist) Semi-feudal empire EU Reform Packages (2001-2004) Kemalist Revolution (1920s) Ottoman Empire
Baskın Oran13 Reactions against EU Reform Packages “Raise the flags high!” -Started with: Insulting and penalizing the Minority Report (Arts. 301, 216) Slogans: -“We’ll be split” (Cyprus, Pontus, Phanar, Diaspora, Kurds, sale of summer houses, privatisation, etc.) -“Islamists will take over” -“Christian & imperialist West” Actions: -The website of the Gen.Staff: “Who doesn’t say ‘I’m proud to be a Turk’ is an enemy and will stay so” -Lynching the leftist and Kurdish demonstrators; killing the non- Muslim citizens and foreign missionaries..
Baskın Oran16 Why this aberration ? A fear from Zombies: Unsolved problems stuffed in the closet now coming out all at once: –Armenian p. –Islam p. –Kurdish p. A reaction against globalization symbolised by the EU Reforms - a new precondition for Turkish candidacy at every new EU document (Budget + Islamophobia/Turcophobia) –Result: “Sevres Paranoia” - Panic among the Kemalist elites - they cannot cope with all this by using the prescriptions of the 1930s. - Panic among the masses – they are afraid of losing “the dominant nation” position..
Baskın Oran17 Analysis of the Present Situation Despair and Hope 1920s & 30s 2000s Kemalism EU Reform Packages Religious Reaction Nationalist Reaction (“Sèvres Paranoia”)