Presentation on theme: "The History of Civilization WELCOME!. Important INFORMATION Attendance is essential! There will be two exams – a mid-term and a final worth 50% each."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Civilization WELCOME!
Important INFORMATION Attendance is essential! There will be two exams – a mid-term and a final worth 50% each Class will be mostly in a lecture format although student participation is encouraged ASK questions You reading material is available from the copy room. Read p 17 - 36 on Egypt for next weeks class. The readings are essential!!!
ANY HELP My office hours: Wednesday 9-12 Friday 9-12
Why do we study History in IR? The purpose of this course is to develop an understanding of history so we can understand the world today Human civilization as we know it stretches back 5000 years and has provided the foundation for the world we live in today.
The building blocks of Civilization Pre-history Humanoid (humanlike) life has existed on earth for – 3-4 million years Humans and their immediate ancestors appeared 100,000- 200,000 years ago What continent is home to the people considered to be the earth’s oldest surviving ethnic group? AUSTRALIA
Neolithic Revolution Around 10,000 years ago human societies became more advanced and civilizations started to evolve. Domesticate plants and animals Practiced agriculture Record keeping Made metal tools (not stone) Complex forms of political and social organization Sophisticated modes of economic exchange
The Earliest “Civilized” societies Appearing between 4000 and 5000 years ago: The Sumerian – Babylonian civilization of Mesopotamia Egypt The Indus Valley Early China What important feature did they have in common?
RIVERS- VITAL to early CIV Water transport easier and cheaper Food! Irrigation Drinkable water The Nile The Tigris and Euphrates The Indus and Ganges The Huang Ho (yellow river)
Ancient River Valley CIVS
What causes civilization evolve? Geography Environment Cooperation Danger Surplus food Water There are many factors that cause civilizaitons to rise up
Best environment for CIVILIZATION One or more of the following: No EXTREMES arable, fertile land Preferably flat Reliable source of water Topography – easy movement Sea or a river
Humanity and the environment Humans and their environment – mutually influence each other – geography is not the ONLY factor that shapes a society. But it does play a crucial role. Human beings have created societies in all but he most inhospitable places.
Key Terms CIVILIZATION “social organization of a higher order marked by advancements in the arts and sciences” A “Civilization” must have: art, science, writing, organization, cooperation, trade, government
The Fertile Crescent
What distinguishes a Civilized society from a Barbaric or Primitive society?
Barbarians“Civilized” Lives in village OR nomadic Illiterate Lives in cities Literate BUT- usually the difference is “we” are civilized “they” are Barbarians. The Ancient Greeks believed anyone who was not Greek was a Barbarian!
Key Terms State Nation An organised society occupying a definite territory and possessing an authoritative government independent of external control. The essence of a state is “sovereignty” or the power to make or administer laws and to punıish people for breaking those laws – (social order) Ethnic concept used to designate people bound together by language, customs, common memories, common destiny.
Key Terms Theocracy Democracy Autocracy Hegemony A theocracy is a state where a god or deity is recognised as the supreme leader or the leader is seen as divine A government chosen by the people, the rule of the majority A government where one person possesses unlimited power Superior influence or power over others- domination