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MA’AN Development Center The Occupation of the Jordan Valley Destroying the Two State Solution October 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "MA’AN Development Center The Occupation of the Jordan Valley Destroying the Two State Solution October 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 MA’AN Development Center The Occupation of the Jordan Valley Destroying the Two State Solution October 2007

2 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Jordan Valley Update Overview Location and general information Land Grab and Colonization Israeli control over JV land Apartheid Wall and settlements List of Israeli settlements (colonies) in JV House demolition Movement Restrictions Residence restrictions Movement and access restrictions Humanitarian access List of checkpoints in JV Vulnerable Economy Agriculture and markets Agricultural barriers that Israel imposes in JV Tourism Occupation procedures that inhibit tourism poverty and unemployment Water resources Israeli control over water resources Lack of access to water for Palestinians MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

3 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Overview The Jordan Valley is located in a stretch of land located at the base of a mountain ridge that runs adjacent to the Jordan River. JV runs from the Sea of Galilee in the north to the Dead Sea in the south. The area is rich in agricultural land, warm weather and abundant water sources, offering great economic and political prospects. Since 1967, 5 military outposts and 36 settlements have been established in the Jordan Valley. Approximately 6200 settlers live in the area and 58,147 Palestinians (excluding the Bedouin population). Map: UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)

4 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Land Grab and Colonization Area Classification * DescriptionAreas included Area (total = 2,400 km²) % of total JV area APalestinian Civil & Security Control Jericho, Al-Uja85 km²3.54% BPalestinian Civil Control & Israeli Security Control Ein al-Beida, Bardala, Fasayel, Marj Na’jeh, Zubeidat, Nassareyyeh 50 km²2.08% CSettlement Regional Council Control 36 settlements1200 km²50% Closed zonesBorder line, military bases, natural reserves 1065 km²44.37% Total under Palestinian control135 km²5.62% Total under Israeli control2265 km²94.37% Source: Ministry of Planning & the Grassroots Palestinian Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign *Classification according to 1993 Oslo Agreement Israeli control over Jordan Valley land

5 Map: Negotiations Support Unit – February 2007 Total settlements in JV = 36 Total # settlers in JV = 6,200 In 2003, part of the eastern Wall was built from the Jordan River (east) to Matalla village of Jenin (west) Wall segregated 5000 dunums of lands

6 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Land Grab and Colonization NoSettlementArea (dunum)Year established Population 1Almog Argaman Beit Ha’arava Bek’out Gif’at Salit families 6Gilgal Gitit Giv’at ‘Olim Hamra Hemdat Hill Hill Source: The Grassroots Palestinian Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign Settlements (colonies)

7 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) NoSettlementArea (dunum)Year established Population 13Kalia Kokhaf Hashahar Ma’ale Efraym Ma’ale Shlomom families 17Mehola Mekhoura Meswa Mezpe Shalom Mezray Jericho Mezray Karmim Mifot Jericho Mol Nefo One woman Source: The Grassroots Palestinian Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign Settlements (colonies) Land Grab and Colonization

8 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) NoSettlementArea (dunum)Year established Population 25Naomi Nativ Hagidud Niran Petsa’el Ro’i Rotem Verd Yeriho Yavit Yitav Tomer Shedmot Mehola Southern Ma’ale Shlomo Source: The Grassroots Palestinian Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign Land Grab and Colonization Settlements (colonies)

9 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Israel continues to confiscate land, demolish homes and prevent rehabilitation of existing houses and roads of the Palestinians, but maintains plans for settlement expansion and infrastructure development for Israeli settlers in the Jordan Valley. Land Grab and Colonization House Demolition

10 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Source: Jericho District Coordination Office January 2007, alone, sought losses of $56,800 due to house and agricultural facility demolitions Source: Jericho District Coordination Office House Demolition Land Grab and Colonization

11 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Movement Restrictions Residence restrictions Since May 2005, only Palestinians with an address on their identification card from the Jordan Valley are allowed to reside there. Many people who have lived in the Jordan Valley for many years, but did not have that address on their ID cards were affected Women who have married into a family from the Jordon valley for example, or others who were born in other areas of the West Bank but now live there are most affected Residents of the Jordon Valley without the corrected address on their identification card fear traveling to other areas of the West Bank in case they are prohibited from returning to their homes.

12 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Movement Restrictions On 12 January 2006 Israeli leaders officially announced the isolation of the Jordan Valley from the rest of the West Bank Restrict 200,000 land owners from accessing their agricultural land Private Palestinian cars travelling through Hamra, Tayasir, Ma’ale Efrayim and Yitav checkpoints are subject to obtaining an Israeli permit, however, permits for private vehicles are very difficult to obtain. Bisan checkpoint into Israel at the north of the Valley continues to be available for the export of Jordan Valley agricultural goods to Israel. However, Bisan is a back-to- back checkpoint and a permit is required for the goods. Long delays at Bisan, Hamra and Tayasir checkpoints can result in delays for farmers which, in many cases, results in the spoiling or devaluation of their produce. A permanent checkpoint has been established on Road 1 to the Dead Sea preventing all Palestinians from traveling south to the Dead Sea even if they possess permits to enter Israel. Movement and access restrictions

13 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Movement and Access Palestinian patients and medical staff suffer from the usual delays caused by checkpoints. Deterioration in the medical condition of patients due to long waiting hours Death and checkpoint deliveries were reported for some emergency medical conditions that could not wait on checkpoints Closing checkpoints on Jewish holidays and closure days threats the lives of emergency cases Humanitarian Access

14 Hamra checkpoint Electronic search room

15 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Checkpoint in the Jordan Valley CheckpointLocationOpening hoursTypeManned by FromTo Jericho southern checkpoint Jericho southern entrance 5am10pmPermanentMilitary, Police, DCO Dyok (Na’ran)North-west of Jericho 6am5pmPermanentMilitary, Police, DCO New’meNorth of Jericho Closed with cement blocks PermanentBorder guards Taybeh (Caramelo) North-west of Jericho OpenPermanentMilitary, Police Wadil QiltSouth-west of Jericho Closed with cement blocks PermanentMilitary HamraNassareyya & Wadi al Bathan 5am10pmPermanentMilitary, Police TayaseerNear Tayaseer 5am9pmPermanentMilitary, Police Ma’ale Efrayim Near ma’ale Efrayim settlement 6am9pmPermanentMilitary UjaMu’arajat road OpenPermanentBorder guards Source: Jericho District Coordination Office

16 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Checkpoint in the Jordan Valley CheckpointLocationOpening hoursTypeManned by FromTo Jericho southern entrance Verd Yeriho junction OpenNot permanent Border guards, Police Al Khan al Ahmar Hizma junction OpenNot permanent Police Der HijlaDer Hijla junction 6am9pmNot permanent Border guards Ma’le Adumim Near Ma’ale Adumim settlement 6am9:30pmPermanentBorder guards, police 07 checkpoint Entrance of Al Khan al Ahmar 6am9:30pmNot permanent Border guards, police BisanOn the Green Line OpenPermanentBorder guards BardalaBardala entrance OpenNot permanent Border guards, Police Dead SeaDead Sea road Flying checkpoint Border guards Source: Jericho District Coordination Office

17

18 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Vulnerable Economy The Jordan Valley area totally depends on agriculture (except for Jericho) for and heavily utilizes its agricultural prospects, providing 35% of the total produce distributed to Palestinians. It produces 60% of the vegetables, 40% of citrus and 100% of bananas. This agricultural success is associated with the area’s unique locations below sea level, which is likened to a giant greenhouse where crops ripe early in the winter. Agriculture and Markets

19 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Vulnerable Economy Agricultural barriers Israel imposes on Palestinians in JV Continued confiscation of agricultural land to complete the eastern segregation zone, expand settlements and military zones Eliminate Palestinian products that may supply the local market by dumping the Palestinian market with Israeli good produced in settlements Demolition and destruction of infrastructure such as curettage of agricultural lands, demolition of agricultural barracks and retention of wells, stone terraces and irrigation networks Prevention of building new wells and reconditioning of existing wells Preventing farmers and landowner who do not have a Jordan Valley residential address in their IDs from reaching and cultivating their lands Closure of Arab, Israeli and regional markets to Palestinian farmers Under normal circumstances, Palestinians need 3 hours to get to the West Bank markets, with the checkpoints, they need at least six hours, making fruits and vegetables more vulnerable to damage Destruction of livestock sector by imposing high fines on shepherds who let their sheep cross an Israeli zone from which Palestinians are forbidden MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

20 Closing grazing fields

21 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Vulnerable Economy Agricultural barriers Israel imposes on Palestinians in JV MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Source: Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture – Jericho Department In ,900 tons of Palestinian produce reached Israeli markets In 2001 Only 15 tons of Palestinian produce reached Israeli markets

22 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Vulnerable Economy Tourism The economy of the Jordan Valley depends also on tourism, mainly focusing in and around Jericho, whereas the rest of the Valley depends primarily on agriculture. MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Jericho’s tourism sector, central to the Jordan Valley economy, was devastated following September Source: Palestinian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities

23 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Vulnerable Economy Occupation Procedures that Inhibit Tourism MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Checkpoints and strict military procedures in/out of the Jordan Valley Complete isolation of Jericho by surrounding it with checkpoints and a trench Ongoing Israeli military training and explosions leaving some sites with serious damages such as the Greek Monastery of Hijla Declaring some tourist attractions closed military zones such as Al Maleh where Israel destroyed the ancient hotels and hot springs present since the Ottoman era. Prevention of Israeli drivers and tourist guides from entering Palestinian areas, leaving tourists with no choice but to avoid the area Cancellation of visits to Jericho and its sites from Israeli and international tourist programs Construction of the Apartheid wall which prevents geographical continuity between the three main tourist centers (Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Jericho)

24 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Vulnerable Economy Occupation Procedures that Inhibit Tourism MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) An ancient hotel in Al Maleh closed by the occupation since 1967

25 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Vulnerable Economy MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Poverty and unemployment The Israeli severe restrictions and oppressive policies on Palestinians in the Jordan Valley resulted in: In 2006, unemployment rates reached 21% in Jericho and Tubas districts Despite of the Valley’s agricultural advantages, approximately 53% of the its residents in Jericho and Tubas were food insecure in 2006, up by 10% from 2005

26 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Water Resources MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Israeli control over water resources The Eastern Water Aquifer Although the Jordan Valley is situated over the Eastern Water Basin, Palestinians in the area suffer from lack of access to water due to Israeli restrictions and copious usage Map: Negotiations Support Unit Eastern Aquifer

27 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Water Resources MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Israeli control over water resources The Eastern Water Aquifer Although the Jordan Valley is situated over the Eastern Water Basin, Palestinians in the area suffer from lack of access to water due to Israeli restrictions and copious usage Eastern Aquifer

28 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Water Resources MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) The Jordan River Israel forbids Palestinians from using the Jordan River, which would provide 250 million cubic liters of water per year Israeli control over water resources The Dead Sea Israel exhausted Dead Sea Water, threatening its existence in the next 20 years. Israel fully controls the Dead Sea and denies Palestinian rights to access its water, minerals and shores. Israel is excessively pumping water out of the sea and reserving water coming from the western valleys of the Jordan River, which results in decreasing the amount of water drained into the Dead Sea. As a result of lack of water drainage into the Dead Sea from the Jordan River valleys as well as Israel’s excessive pumping of the sea water, aerial photos show the Dead Sea splitting into two separate, smaller lakes

29 A northern part of the Dead Sea B southern lobe partially dried out A B N

30 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Water Resources MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Irrigation projects Over the last 4 decades, Israel has isolated 162 agricultural wells in the Jordan Valley (east of Road 90), prohibiting Palestinians from using them Israeli control over water resources Underground water Controlling underground water and digging wells at critical depths while Prohibiting Palestinians from digging new of reallocating wells. Israel measures the amount of water used by Palestinians and imposes fines on those who exceed the allocated amount Contamination of available water The water available for Palestinians from springs and underground water is polluted by the leakage of sewage from settlements

31 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Water Resources MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Comparison Israel has full control over Palestinian water resources and restricts Palestinian access to these resources, as a result: Lack of access to water for Palestinians Settlers Cultivate 27,000 dunums Consume 41mcm of water/ year Palestinians Cultivate 53,000 dunums Consume 37mcm of water/ year

32 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Water Resources MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Lack of access to water for Palestinians Waiting to drink water in the Palestinian village of Fassayel

33 MA’AN Development Center Palestine The Jordan Valley and the two state Solution MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) UN Resolution 1397 affirms the vision of two states –Israel & Palestine living side by side within secure and recognized borders For any state to survive it must be: (1) Sovereign (2) Geographically contiguous (3) Economically sustainable

34 MA’AN Development Center Palestine The Jordan Valley and the two state Solution MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Sovereignty Israel controls more than 94.37% of the Jordan Valley land Israel has full control over water resources in the Jordan Valley Israel has full control over the eastern borders with Jordan ( the only outlet for West Bank Palestinians to the world)

35 MA’AN Development Center Palestine The Jordan Valley and the two state Solution MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Geographical Continuity The Jordan Valley is completely isolated from the rest of the West Bank Access to the Jordan Valley city of Jericho is restricted; Palestinians are not allowed to exist Jericho through the Jordan Valley, they have to take a long dangerous route to the West Bank in order to do so

36 MA’AN Development Center Palestine The Jordan Valley and the two state Solution MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Economic Sustainability Agriculture and livestock Complete control over most of the agricultural lands Complete control over water resources necessary for agriculture Destroying the agricultural infrastructure by demolition of irrigation pools, irrigations networks, confiscation of land, etc. Imposing severe restrictions on Palestinians for marketing their produce to the West Bank markets and international markets Destruction of livestock sector due to the closure of grazing fields, high fines imposed on shepherds, etc

37 MA’AN Development Center Palestine The Jordan Valley and the two state Solution MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Economic Sustainability Tourism Preventing Jericho’s local and international tourist visits Destroying some tourist ancient tourist attractions in the Jordan Valley Preventing geographical continuity between the three main tourist centers (Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Jericho)

38 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) Is the two state solution still possible? The Jordan Valley and the two state Solution Map: Negotiations Support Unit

39 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Resources MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972) To Exist is to Resist: Eye on Jordan valley – MA’AN Development Center and the Grassroots Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign, May 2007 United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) – Closure Update, March 2007 United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) – Humanitarian Update, October 2005 UN Press Release (SC/7326), Security Council resolution 1397, 2002 The Grassroots Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign Negotiations Support Unit Jericho District Coordination Office (DCO) Palestinian Ministry of Planning Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture Palestinian ministry of Tourism and Antiquities Picture Credits: MA’AN and The Grassroots Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign


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