Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Objective: We will discuss the concerns and interactions between the USA and American Indians from the 1960’s to present time."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 7 Objective: We will discuss the concerns and interactions between the USA and American Indians from the 1960’s to present time.
Political and Social Action/Change Throughout 40’s, 50’s, 60’s lands were continually diminished by dams, strong arm tactics, political control of BIA, etc. new types of activism modeled after? – Wallace Mad Bear and nonviolent movement vs. NY Movements brought together tribal members, increased pride, relocation programs led to urban populations growing more militant due to conditions/time.
Indian Militancy 1961 Am. Indian Chicago Conf. led to Declaration of Indian Purpose.Declaration of Indian Purpose NIYC exemplified youth movement, anger. – “We are not free” -Clyde Warrior – Pacific coast “fish-ins” indicative of civil disobedience“fish-ins” – Formation of AIM and “Indian Patrols” in Minneapolis show the mobilization/radicalized new population.“Indian Patrols” Actor Marlon Brando and Puyallup tribal leader Bob Satiacum just before Brando's arrest during a fish-in, March 2, 1964 Courtesy Seattle Post-Intelligencer
Activism Militancy AIM / other movements used protest to further causes. Led to eventual violence. – ‘68 Inter. Bridge Blockade – ’69 Seizure of AlcatrazSeizure of Alcatraz – 70 Thanksgiving “Mourning” – 71 Mt. Rushmore – 72 Trail of Broken Treaties and occupation of BIA building. Outcome of 20 points? 72 Trail of Broken Treaties and occupation of BIA building.
Siege at Wounded Knee Policy failures led to increased radicalism / tension Tension led to increased federal presence AIM and Means, Banks overtook Wounded Knee, est. own “nation” Lasted 71 days until treaty was signed, not recognized. Peltier legacy. Violence continued between Dick Wilson’s “goons” and activists until 1976.
Dick Wilson and BIA’s Power Within three years of the Wounded Knee II siege, 69 members and supporters of AIM died violently on the reservation. Nearly 350 others were physically assaulted. None of their killers were convicted, and many of the cases were never investigated. Many AIM leaders were imprisoned. http://www.pbs.org/itvs/alcatrazisnotanisland/activism.html
Legacy of AIM / Militantism Two sides – Temporary coverage/ impact for cause. Violence wrong way, unproductive. No substance. – Renewed interest, pride in cultural heritage. Spawned new groups, etc.
Before AIM [American Indian Movement], Indians were dispirited, defeated and culturally dissolving. People were ashamed to be Indian. You didn't see the young people wearing braids or chokers or ribbon shirts in those days. Hell, I didn't wear 'em. People didn't Sun Dance, they didn't Sweat, they were losing their languages. Then there was that spark at Alcatraz, and we took off. Man, we took a ride across this country. We put Indians and Indian rights smack dab in the middle of the public consciousness for the first time since the so-called Indian Wars.... [AIM] laid the groundwork for the next stage in regaining our sovereignty and self-determination as nation, and I'm proud to have been a part of that. - Russell Means (Oglala Lakota)
Gaming on Indian Lands Why? – Sovereignty and economic self-reliance is seen as only way to break poverty cycle. (60’s/70’s) – Economic opportunities limited in so many ways they turned to gaming (took page out of U.S. book) How? – Seminoles in ‘79 w/ bingo led to Supreme Court ruling which led to California v. Cabazon – IGRA ‘88 allowed states/tribes to run casinos on lands Federal v. State v. Tribal Sovereignty argument
Positives Mississippi Choctaws one of 10 largest employers in Mississippi. Seminole tribe purchased Hard Rock for 965 million in 2006. California Tribes: 18 tribes own many casinos Pequot's in Connecticut own Foxwoods/Mohegan Sun
Overall Benefits Tribes receive $4 of every $10 that Americans wager at casinos. Indian casinos earn $26.7 billion in 2008 revenues. There are 425 Indian gaming facilities. 240 tribes operate casinos. Indian gaming operates in 28 states 24 states allow full-scale Indian casinos, 4 allow only Class II casinos (bingo slots) Indian casinos provide 712,000 jobs with $27 billion in wages Indian gaming paid $10.8 billion in local, state and federal taxes in 2008. Indian gaming pays $1.3 billion in taxes to federal, state, local governments. Source: National Indian Gaming Commission www.nigc.gov
Tribal Benefits Economic freedoms lead to cultural awareness, programs, buildings, legal monies, etc. State revenues in billions – Political power restored in states (p. 545 quote) Guaranteed employment, health care, housing, government programs, education, etc for some of the tribes 2007 took in more revenue than Vegas (26.7 Billion) http://500nations.com/news/Indian_Casinos/2 0090603.asp
Mt. Pleasant MI, Ojibwa Nation Cultural CenterCasino
Arguments Against Who would argue against Indian gaming rights? – Local communities against traffic, influence, etc. – Other gaming entities (AC and Vegas) – Resentment and stereotypes – Indian Arguments Against? Weariness of relationships with states/compromise of sovereignty Vices and impact upon culture/tribe/reservations Non-Indian involvement Divisions within tribes and with other tribes
Green Bay, WI. Oneida Nation Gas station gambling Another gas station (7 casinos within reservation)
Confronting Modern Issues Alcohol/Drugs – HIGH alcoholism rates health issues, depression. Meth use rising/effects – Combating addiction Repatriation: Returning bones/artifacts – Showed lack of humanity to Indians vs. Science/Research – 80’s began period of returning items, 1990 Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act.
North Dakota alcohol impact upon the reservations.
21 st Century Indians Changes over last 500+ years indicative of many problems, but also the resilience of the Indian. Poverty, government actions, genocide, etc. have not killed the Indian, nor their spirit/ideas. Adaption has been constant and will continue on into the 21 st century. What roles they serve will be interesting and progress will hopefully ensue.
Reflection Has your opinion changed about this/any topic regarding NA history? What was the most interesting part/unit of this course? What do you take from this class overall? Would you recommend this class to a friend? Why or why not? Thoughts for improvement?
Quiz (456-463) 1. Post WWII saw a population shift from reservations to _________? 2. This group was responsible for many social reforms in Indian communities in 1960’s. 3. List one specific protest/action taken by Indians in 60’s and 70’s to realize treaty rights, freedoms. 4. Which led the siege at Wounded Knee on the Indian side? 5. Which of the following was the radical Indian group whose impact has been debated since the 1970’s. A. MeansD. NYIC B. WilsonE. BIA C. AIM
Quiz 1). LIST one stereotype modern Indians are supposed to perpetuate? 2). Which has been most critical for tribal economic success? 3). Which tribe owns Hard Rock International? 4). List one negative of gaming for Indian populations 5). List one benefit of gaming for individual Indians. A. Sovereignty B. Seminole C. Choctaw