Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What compromises were made in 1787 about slavery? What problems could you see coming from these compromises? Describe slavery in the South."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer What compromises were made in 1787 about slavery? What problems could you see coming from these compromises? Describe slavery in the South as you understand.
Bell Ringer What two machines helped to save the institution of slavery? What other name was slavery known by? What was the underground railroad?
Bell Ringer What were the sectional differences between the north and south? What was popular sovereignty? Which side, the north or south, was more prepared to fight the Civil War? Explain.
Bell Ringer What was the fugitive slave law? What was Bleeding Kansas? Name the states of the Confederacy.
CH 8/9: Leading to the Civil War
When it all goes wrong again. At the Constitutional Convention in 1787 the delegates all agree to let the issue of slavery rest until Slavery was seen as slowly dying. Repeatedly planting tobacco, rice, and indigo in fields had exhausted their natural minerals. Fields were too large, the numbers of slaves were not cost effective, and the only crop that grew well was cotton. However, the process of cleaning cotton was a nightmare (SUPER IMPORTANT). By 1808 many thought slavery would have phased itself out.
Eli Whitney & the Cotton Gin Eli Whitney, a northern inventor, sees how slow the cotton picking process is when in GA. He invents a machine to Gin (clean) cotton in Plantations will be able to clean 50 lbs of cotton in the time it use to clean 1 lb.
In addition to the Cotton Gin, cotton mills will open. Mills will quickly and cheaply turn raw cotton into cloth. These two developments will save the institution of slavery overnight.
The Northwest Territories Part of the Northwest Ordinance (1787) stated that all land North of the Ohio river would be “Free” land. In the 1800s Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois would all become free states, but Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama would become Slave states. Free & Slave States would be balanced at 11.
The “Peculiar Institution” Though the U.S. Congress outlawed the African slave trade in 1808, the domestic trade flourished, and the slave population in the U.S. nearly tripled over the next 50 years. Slavery in the US had become “self sustaining,” meaning that you didn’t need to import slaves since the current population of slaves were reproducing at a high enough rate to replenish the work force By 1860 the slave population had reached nearly 4 million, with more than half living in the cotton-producing states of the South.
Missouri Compromise Missouri applies for statehood, as a slave state… even though most of the state was above the Ohio River. In 1820, luckily when Maine applies to be a state, the Missouri Compromise will be reached. Any state above the 36’ 30 line will be free, but under that latitude would be slave. No one liked the solution, but everyone accepts it in place of continued fighting.
The Important People
Sectionalism North Urban: cities – : 9%-35% Largely Industrialized Considerable Infrastructure Immigrants: Ireland & Germany. Immigrants add considerably to their new society South Rural Agricultural Few railroads or canals Only Large plantations have slaves. The Majority (3 of 4) farmers still struggled to make a living. Slaves are still a threat.
The Ongoing Debate North Northern Moderates accepted Slavery where it was, but didn’t want it to spread. Northern Radical Abolitionist called for the immediate end to slavery everywhere. South Southern Moderates saw slavery as a necessary evil that would eventually die out. Southern Radicals saw slaves as property, and preventing Southerners from moving with their property violated their rights.
Underground Railroad Meanwhile, slaves were escaping to the North on the Underground Railroad. The most famous “Conductor” was Harriet Tubman who repeatedly entered the South to help slaves escape.
The Issue Continues In 1846 When the President James K Polk asked for funding to buy California the slavery issue surfaced again. David Wilmont added an amendment to the bill that said no land acquired by the US could have slaves. The Wilmont Proviso was meant to, “preserve for free white labor a fair country.” The Proviso constantly passed the House but constantly was shot down in the Senate
Popular Sovereignty & 1850 The idea of Popular Sovereignty rose, that a people should decide for themselves whether to be a free or slave state. In 1849 CA applies for state hood (messing up the free/slave balance) Henry Clay stepped in to broker one last compromise deal
Compromise of 1850 California enters the Union as a free state. New Mexico and Utah Territories are open for slavery. Washington DC no longer sells slaves, but slave holders can keep their slaves Creates a strong Fugitive Slave Law: a law that requires the return of captured slaves to their owners
Uncle Tom’s Cabin The Compromise helped some, but the Fugitive Slave law created serious controversy. Many Northerners opposed the law, and therefore did not obey it Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin in which she described slavery and the harsh conditions of plantations. The Book infuriated many Northerners and made the Abolitionist v Slavery issue worse. In it’s first year it sold 300,000 copies (US), 1 Million in Britain
1854: Kansas-Nebraska Act The Senator of Illinois (the one who beat Lincoln) Stephen Douglas introduces a bill to settle the plains. Kansas and Nebraska are the next two territories applying for statehood.
Because of their location above the 36’30 line slavery is not mentioned. Southerners agree to approve the new states if they enter the Union under the rule of Popular Sovereignty. The Missouri Compromise had made slavery off limits, but now it seemed slavery was back in play.
Republican Party The Republican Party will be founded in 1854 in opposition to the Fugitive Slave law and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Bleeding Kansas 1855: Kansas would be settled, but there were groups who tried to make trouble. (Pro Slave/ Anti Slave) John Brown would become famous at this point for killing 5 men (with swords) for their role in attacking an anti slavery town in Kansas. Charles Sumner will make a speech called, “Crimes against Kansas.” Insults Andrew Butler (SC) Preston Brooks, his nephew, beats Sumner on the Senate floor with a cane.
No More Compromises 1856: Dred Scott Decision A slave named Dred Scott files a law suit saying that as he had previously lived in the North he should be freed. The Supreme court rules that Scott “was not a citizen…” and therefore had no legal grounds on which he could sue. Since slaves are considered legal property by the court, Article V of the Constitution protects personal property, the court finds the 36’30 unconstitutional, and opens the whole US up to slavery.
No More Compromises 1859: John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry John Brown, with 21 others, will seize a weapons arsenal in Harpers Ferry VA. Brown plans to distribute the weapons an start a slave rebellion. The US military will surround, capture, and execute John Brown for the crime of treason. – “I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away, but with Blood. I had...vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed, it might be done”
The Election of 1860 James Buchanan had been President from He was a Southerner and did little to fix the issues of the country. Four men will run for President: – Lincoln (IL)- Republican [Dark Horse Candidate] – Douglass (IL)- Northern Democrats – Breckenridge (KY)- Southern Democrats – Bell (TN)- Constitutional Union Party (Avoided Slavery)
Electoral Map of 1860 Election
After 1860…. Southern States had said they would consider secession if Lincoln won…. Lincoln won. Dec 20, 1860 South Carolina leave the Union and attacks Fort Sumter, which was located in Charleston Harbor Over the next few weeks 6 more states secede, and create the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis is made their President.