2Essential Question Why did the Civil War occur? Many historians argue the Civil War was really a fight over states rights.Others argue the idea of the Civil War being fought over state rights is merely an attempt by Southerners to sanitize their history. The real cause of the Civil War, according to many historians, was slavery.Then again, many say the North dictated the history of the Civil War because they were the winners, so arguing that the Civil War was fought over slavery is just the North glorifying their role in the war.To what degree is one side closer to reality than the other?
3The Popular Sovereignty Panacea Should the territory taken from Mexico be slave or free? “Popular sovereignty” was the idea that the people of a territory should determine for themselves whether or not to permit slavery.No slavery in the territories!Popular sovereignty in the territories!David Wilmot: author of the Wilmot ProvisoStephen Douglas. Author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
4Political Triumphs for General Taylor Remember him? (hint: he was the 8th president of the U.S.)I support the Wilmot ProvisoThe parties in 1848 wanted to ignore the issue of slavery and instead elected war heroes as presidential candidates.Not trusting the Whigs or Democrats to abolish slavery in the territories, a new political party emerged; the Free Soil Party. They nominated Martin Van Burn to run for president.My last name is not Gass or Jackass, thank you very much.I am so gonna die next yearWhat did you say? Slavery? What? I can’t hear you.Not cool guys…not cool.President Polk, suffering from health problems, decided not to seek a second term.Henry Clay, the real leader of the Whig party, had given too many speeches and made too many enemies to run for president.The Democrats bet the public would elect a famous war hero like General Lewis Cass.The Whigs bet on their own famous war hero in General Zachary Taylor.
5I found me a nugget, par-de-ner “Californy Gold”Quick formation of an effective government in California was essential because of the very large and unruly population drawn into the state by the discovery of gold.I found me a nugget, par-de-ner15 states15 states?
6Sectional BalanceThe proposed admission of California directly into the Union was dangerously controversial because California’s admission as a free state would destroy the equal balance of slave and free states in the U.S. Senate.30 senators from free statesSlave StatesFree StatesGANHFLMASCCTNCRIVANJMDNYKYPATNVTLAOHMIINALILMOMEARIATXWI30 senators from slave states
7The Underground Railroad Many things were disagreeable to the South, such as the balance of power slowly favoring free states in Congress and moral judgments of the abolitionists. But Northern apathy regarding runaway slaves especially angered many Southerners.The existence of the “Underground railroad” added to southern demands for a stricter federal Fugitive Slave Law.Harriet Tubman helped over 300 slaves escape to the north. While only about 1000 slaves out of 4 million ran away every year, the South felt their honor was attacked.
8Twilight of the Senatorial Giants Safeguard southern rights!Slavery is evil!The question of California statehood could have started a Civil War in Some Southerners were even demanding secession. Cooler heads needed to come out as leaders. Among the notable advocates of compromise in the controversy over slavery in 1850 were Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.Chill-out guys.John Calhoun pleaded to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, and keep political balance in the Senate.William Seward: freshman Senator from New York.Daniel WebsterHenry ClayDuring the debate over the Compromise of 1850, northern antislavery forces were particularly outraged by what they considered the “betrayal” of Senator Daniel Webster.I help the Compromise become law by dying.Millard Fillmore signed the Compromise into law.President Taylor
9Breaking the Congressional Logjam Under the terms of the Compromise of 1850, California was admitted to the Union as a free state, and slavery in Utah and New Mexico territories would be left up to popular sovereignty.The greatest winner in the Compromise of 1850 was the North because now the Senate had more senators from free states and slavery wouldn’t be popular in the colder climates of Utah and New Mexico territories.Also, One of the primary effects of the Fugitive Slave Law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850 was a sharp rise in northern antislavery feeling.Popular Sovereignty in Utah TerritoryFree StateNo slave trade in D.C.Stricter Fugitive Slave ActPopular Sovereignty in New Mexico Territory
10Defeat and Doom for the Whigs Unfortunately for the Whig party, Northern Whigs liked General Scott but disliked his support of the Fugitive Slave Law. Southern Whigs liked the Fugitive Slave Law but didn’t trust General Scott.Apart from the collapse of the Whig Party over slavery, the Soil Party syphoned votes away from Scott.I win.I’m a war hero, you’re a dandy-boy.The slavery wing of the Democratic Party liked Franklin Pierce because he was a prosouthern northerner.The Whigs chose another popular general to run for president in Winfield Scott.
11Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border The Compromise of 1850 seemed to close the door on expanding slavery in the territory taken from Mexico. Southerners, seeking to expand the territory of slavery, took small military expeditions to acquire Nicaragua and Cuba.You’re on your own buddyI was executed by a Honduran firing squadPresident Pierce angered many northerners with the Ostend Manifesto, which attempted to take Cuba from Spain.William Walker took over Nicaragua for a short time
12The Allure of AsiaWhen the United States acquired California and Oregon, trade with Asia became much easier. The primary goal of Commodore Matthew Perry’s treaty with Japan in 1854 (Treaty of Kanagawa) was opening Japan to American trade.Congressman Caleb Cushing secured trading rights with China.I look nothing like that dude in the painting.At least you got a painting.Caleb CushingCommodore Matthew Perry
13Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase Northerners especially resented Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act because it repealed the Missouri Compromise prohibiting slavery in northern territories.I’ll get the railroad to go through Nebraska.The South felt like Kansas would become a slave state, so they supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act.California and Oregon were isolated from the rest of the country and railroads to those new states were the best solution connect them to the rest of the U.S.. The South wanted the railroad like to go through Texas because they wanted the boost in wealth, population, and influence. Of course, the North wanted the same benefits. What to do?Stephen Douglas proposed splitting the Louisiana Territory into two sections and allowing popular sovereignty to decide the slavery issue in the new territories.