Presentation on theme: "1848-1854 AP U.S. History. Why did the Civil War occur? Many historians argue the Civil War was really a fight over states rights. Others argue the idea."— Presentation transcript:
AP U.S. History
Why did the Civil War occur? Many historians argue the Civil War was really a fight over states rights. Others argue the idea of the Civil War being fought over state rights is merely an attempt by Southerners to sanitize their history. The real cause of the Civil War, according to many historians, was slavery. Then again, many say the North dictated the history of the Civil War because they were the winners, so arguing that the Civil War was fought over slavery is just the North glorifying their role in the war. To what degree is one side closer to reality than the other?
Should the territory taken from Mexico be slave or free? “Popular sovereignty” was the idea that the people of a territory should determine for themselves whether or not to permit slavery. No slavery in the territories! David Wilmot: author of the Wilmot Proviso Popular sovereignty in the territories! Stephen Douglas. Author of the Kansas- Nebraska Act
The Whigs bet on their own famous war hero in General Zachary Taylor. The Democrats bet the public would elect a famous war hero like General Lewis Cass. The parties in 1848 wanted to ignore the issue of slavery and instead elected war heroes as presidential candidates. President Polk, suffering from health problems, decided not to seek a second term. Henry Clay, the real leader of the Whig party, had given too many speeches and made too many enemies to run for president. My last name is not Gass or Jackass, thank you very much. What did you say? Slavery? What? I can’t hear you. Not cool guys…not cool. I am so gonna die next year I support the Wilmot Proviso Not trusting the Whigs or Democrats to abolish slavery in the territories, a new political party emerged; the Free Soil Party. They nominated Martin Van Burn to run for president. Remember him? (hint: he was the 8 th president of the U.S.)
Quick formation of an effective government in California was essential because of the very large and unruly population drawn into the state by the discovery of gold. I found me a nugget, par-de-ner 15 states ?
The proposed admission of California directly into the Union was dangerously controversial because California’s admission as a free state would destroy the equal balance of slave and free states in the U.S. Senate. 30 senators from slave states 30 senators from free states Slave States Free States GANH FLMA SCCT NCRI VANJ MDNY KYPA TNVT LAOH MIIN ALIL MOME ARMI FLIA TXWI
The existence of the “Underground railroad” added to southern demands for a stricter federal Fugitive Slave Law. Many things were disagreeable to the South, such as the balance of power slowly favoring free states in Congress and moral judgments of the abolitionists. But Northern apathy regarding runaway slaves especially angered many Southerners. Harriet Tubman helped over 300 slaves escape to the north. While only about 1000 slaves out of 4 million ran away every year, the South felt their honor was attacked.
During the debate over the Compromise of 1850, northern antislavery forces were particularly outraged by what they considered the “betrayal” of Senator Daniel Webster. The question of California statehood could have started a Civil War in Some Southerners were even demanding secession. Cooler heads needed to come out as leaders. Among the notable advocates of compromise in the controversy over slavery in 1850 were Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Chill-out guys. Daniel Webster Henry Clay Slavery is evil! Safeguard southern rights! John Calhoun pleaded to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, and keep political balance in the Senate. William Seward: freshman Senator from New York. I help the Compromise become law by dying. President Taylor Millard Fillmore signed the Compromise into law.
Under the terms of the Compromise of 1850, California was admitted to the Union as a free state, and slavery in Utah and New Mexico territories would be left up to popular sovereignty. The greatest winner in the Compromise of 1850 was the North because now the Senate had more senators from free states and slavery wouldn’t be popular in the colder climates of Utah and New Mexico territories. Also, One of the primary effects of the Fugitive Slave Law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850 was a sharp rise in northern antislavery feeling. Free State Popular Sovereignty in Utah Territory Popular Sovereignty in New Mexico Territory No slave trade in D.C. Stricter Fugitive Slave Act
The slavery wing of the Democratic Party liked Franklin Pierce because he was a prosouthern northerner. The Whigs chose another popular general to run for president in Winfield Scott. Unfortunately for the Whig party, Northern Whigs liked General Scott but disliked his support of the Fugitive Slave Law. Southern Whigs liked the Fugitive Slave Law but didn’t trust General Scott. Apart from the collapse of the Whig Party over slavery, the Soil Party syphoned votes away from Scott. I win. I’m a war hero, you’re a dandy-boy.
The Compromise of 1850 seemed to close the door on expanding slavery in the territory taken from Mexico. Southerners, seeking to expand the territory of slavery, took small military expeditions to acquire Nicaragua and Cuba. William Walker took over Nicaragua for a short time I was executed by a Honduran firing squad You’re on your own buddy President Pierce angered many northerners with the Ostend Manifesto, which attempted to take Cuba from Spain.
When the United States acquired California and Oregon, trade with Asia became much easier. The primary goal of Commodore Matthew Perry’s treaty with Japan in 1854 (Treaty of Kanagawa) was opening Japan to American trade. Congressman Caleb Cushing secured trading rights with China. I look nothing like that dude in the painting. At least you got a painting. Commodore Matthew Perry Caleb Cushing
Northerners especially resented Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act because it repealed the Missouri Compromise prohibiting slavery in northern territories. California and Oregon were isolated from the rest of the country and railroads to those new states were the best solution connect them to the rest of the U.S.. The South wanted the railroad like to go through Texas because they wanted the boost in wealth, population, and influence. Of course, the North wanted the same benefits. What to do? I’ll get the railroad to go through Nebraska. Stephen Douglas proposed splitting the Louisiana Territory into two sections and allowing popular sovereignty to decide the slavery issue in the new territories. The South felt like Kansas would become a slave state, so they supported the Kansas- Nebraska Act.