Presentation on theme: "Dr. Tom G. Palmer Atlas Economic Research Foundation Cato Institute September School of Social Sciences and Political Philosophy CADI Konrad Adenauer Stiftung."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Tom G. Palmer Atlas Economic Research Foundation Cato Institute September School of Social Sciences and Political Philosophy CADI Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Bucharest 12.September.2011
Is the State Necessary for Freedom and Order? Some argue that it is a logical necessity, e.g.: There must be a system of defense of life and liberty and of adjudication or disputes That system must have a final arbiter A final arbiter must have a monopoly Without a monopoly of coercive power, it is not possible to induce people to behave properly Only a state can overcome the transactions costs involved in creating public goods
Is the state is necessary to achieve personal identity? Passports Birth Certificates
Some Believe the State Is Responsible for….Everything “Government is 'implicated' in everything people own.... If rich people have a great deal of money, it is because the government furnishes a system in which they are entitled to have and keep that money.” Professor Cass Sunstein Cass Sunstein
The presumption is that all “Surplus” is Attributable to the State But without a surplus, no state could be formed in the first place….
“What is a State?”“What is a State?” “a state is that human community which (successfully) lays claim to the monopoly of legitimate physical violence within a certain territory, this ‘territory’ being another of the defining characteristics of the state.” Max Weber, “Politics as a Vocation”  Max Weber ( )
How is Wealth Acquired?How is Wealth Acquired? “There exist in the world only two great parties; that of those who prefer to live from the produce of their labor or of their property, and that of those who prefer to live on the labor or the property of others…” --Charles Comte Le Censeur Européen
An Organization of the Political Means Franz Oppenheimer ( ) The “economic means” and the “political means”: “There are two fundamentally opposed means whereby man, requiring sustenance, is impelled to obtain the necessary means for satisfying his desires. These are work and robbery, one's own labor and the forcible appropriation of the labor of others.” “The state is an organization of the political means.” --Franz Oppenheimer, The State
What Economic Means Must Precede the Political Means?
A Memory of the Conflict in an Old Story “And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.” Genesis 4, 1-16
Empires of Nomads over Cultivators
The Role of the Middle East….
From Roving Bandits to Stationary Bandits From Roving Bandits to Stationary Bandits Mancur Olson 1( ) “If the leader of a roving bandit gang who finds only slim pickings is strong enough to take hold of a given territory and to keep other bandits out, he can monopolize crime in that area – he can become a stationary bandit.” --Mancur Olson, Power and Prosperity
Maximizing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Capturing the “State Accessible Product” (SAP) “The ruler…maximizes the state- accessible product, if necessary, at the expense of the overall wealth of the realm and its subjects.” “the state-accessible product had to be easy to identify, monitor, and enumerate (in short, assessable), as well as being close enough geographically….” --James C. Scott, The Art of Not Being Governed (2009)
A Case Study: The Norman State, 911 Hrólfr, aka Duke Rollo of Normandy
The Norman Conquest of England: 1066
A look at the problem of sovereignty “Majesty or sovereignty is the most high, absolute, and perpetual power over the citizens and subjects in a Commonwealth…” “Custom acquires its force little by little and by the common consent of all, or most, over many years, while law appears suddenly, gets its strength from one person who has the power of commanding all.” Jean Bodin, Les Six livres de la République, 1576
As such, the sovereign is defined to be the source of law and therefore above the law
De Jasay’s “Ethics Turnpike” Rectitude Altruism Kantian Interest Tribalism Supergame Straddle Social Contract
Existence is a Proof of Possibility EEven the American legal system is more competitive, less monopolistic, and more voluntary than most people think BBail Bondsmen and Bounty Hunters ““Private Security Firms” LLocks and Self- Defense EEtc., etc., etc. If voluntary provision of public goods is impossible, why is it so common?
What are some preconditions to voluntary provision of a liberal legal order? Distinction between the services of 1.Providing rules and decisions 2.Providing enforcement of rules and decisions Relying on restitution rather than retribution A social order relying on cross- cutting loyalties
“All of us, without exception, carry this inherited poison within us, in the most varied and unexpected places and in the most diverse forms, often defying perception. All of us, collectively and individually, are accessories to this great sin of all time, this real original sin, a hereditary fault that can be excised and erased only with great difficulty and slowly, by an insight into pathology, by a will to recover, by the active remorse of all.” --Alexander Rüstow, Freedom and Domination Alexander Rüstow ( )