3 Advocates of Centralization Americans feared the power of a central/federal/national governmentWanted to maintain State’s rights and powersThe government under the A of C was hampered byFactions (different groups within the whole)InstabilityInability to deal with economic problems (inflation, taxes, etc.)Failure to deal with Shay’s Rebellion made it look badLack of power to solve social unrest (like veteran affairs and slavery)Merchants, wealthy landowners, and traders wanted to standardize the economic system… WHY?Alexander Hamilton and James Madison join forces to call for a Constitutional Convention—where delegates will meet to overhaul the A of C and strengthen the central government so that they could have the power to PASS TAXES
4 A Divided Convention55 “Founding Fathers” met in Philadelphia in September of 1787Generally they were group of people who distrusted any concentration of power but new they needed a stronger governmentWashington chosen as President of the ConventionVoted to close the meeting to the public and press… Why is this significant?James Madison introduced the Virginia Plan—bicameral legislature (House=based on population, Senate=based on votes of the House)Large states have a huge advantageNew Jersey Plan—unicameral legislature equally represented, gave congress powers to tax and regulate tradeGave advantage to small statesArgument over whether slaves should be counted for taxation… WHY?
5 Compromise Convention bickered for months, could not decide Great Compromise —July, 1787 Convention agreed to legislature and representationHouse=based on populationSlaves count as 3/5 of a person but cannot voteWhy would slave states want slaves to count as population?Senate=every state gets 2 representativesSouth prevented North from taxing the slave trade or for stopping the slave trade for 20 years
6 The Constitution of 1787 James Madison—the father of the Constitution Solved the issues of…Sovereignty—power flowed from the people NOT from the government“We the people…”Divided Power—Federal and State government shared power—a RepublicLimiting Power—Separation of powers created a system of checks and balances within the three branches of government and the state/federal government
7 Federalists and Antifederalists Convention feared that the Constitution wouldn’t be ratified under the A of C (which required a unanimous vote) so they changed the rules and required only 9 states to ratify.All states but Rhode Island ratified it.Federalist Papers—written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay and published in Newspapers, supported the constitution. Supporters came to be known as FederalistsAntifederalists—feared a possibly tyrannical centralized government and did not like that the constitution because it lacked a Bill of Rights
8 Completing the Structure Elections took place in early 1789, overwhelming Federalists won.George Washington became President and John Adams became Vice PresidentCongresses first task was to draft a Bill of Rights— which the antifederalists were promised if they supported the formation of the new government (12 proposed, 10 ratified)Congress created first Cabinet—Secretaries of State (Thomas Jefferson), Treasury (Hamilton), and War (Henry Knox)
9 AOC vs. Constitution ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION CONSTITUTION ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONCONSTITUTIONLEVYING TAXESCongress could request states to pay taxesCongress has right to levy taxes on individualsFEDERAL COURTSNo system of federal courtsCourt system created to deal with issues between citizens, statesREGULATION OF TRADENo provision to regulate interstate tradeCongress has right to regulate trade between statesEXECUTIVE No executive with power. President of U.S. merely presided over CongressExecutive branch headed by President who chooses Cabinet and has checks on power of judiciary and legislatureAMENDING DOCUMENT13/13 needed to amend Articles2/3 of both houses of Congress plus 3/4 of state legislatures or national conventionREPRESENTATION OF STATES Each state received 1 vote regardless of sizeUpper house (Senate) with 2 votes; lower house (House of Representatives) based on populationRAISING AN ARMYCongress could not draft troops, dependent on states to contribute forcesCongress can raise an army to deal with military situationsINTERSTATE COMMERCENo control of trade between statesInterstate commerce controlled by CongressDISPUTES BETWEEN STATESComplicated system of arbitrationFederal court system to handle disputesSOVEREIGNTYSovereignty resides in statesConstitution the supreme law of the landPASSING LAWS 9/13 needed to approve legislation
11 Hamilton and the Federalists Federalists dominated government for 12 years under the leadership of Hamilton (as leader of the party NOT the government)Hamilton believed:Stable and effective government required “enlightened” ruling class What does this mean?Government was responsible for national and state debt—issues bonds to give the wealthy a stake in the country’s futureCreated a federal bank—safe place to keep funds, collect taxes, and pay government expenses.Government sold lands in the west to pay for bonds but it wasn’t enoughGovernment started taxing the production of Whiskey and putting tariffs on imports.
12 Enacting the Federalist Program Some states (VA) did not like the Federal assumption of state debts from states with large debt (MA) so they compromised and moved the capitol from Philadelphia to Washington D.C.Bank of United States is created despite argument that Congress could not create the bank since the Constitution did not specifically say it could.
13 The Republican Opposition Madison warned that political parties were dangerous (Fed Papers #10)Because Federalists were in control of so much of the government, many wanted an opposing party—birth of the Republican PartyFirst Party System—both sides argued that the other side had no right to exist and that there were no political parties.James Madison & Thomas Jefferson—leaders of the Republican partyBelieved in States Right,Believed in an “Agrarian Republic”—independent farmersFeared growth of cities and industrializationFederalists did not support the French Revolution while the Republican did.(common people of France over threw the French aristocracy)
15 Securing the Frontier1791 PA farmers refused to pay whiskey excise tax, Washington called militia from 3 states, Whiskey Rebellion collapsed- intimidation won allegianceFederal government won loyalty of frontiersmen by accepting territories as new states (NC 1789, RI 1791 last of 13 colonies)- VT 1791, Kentucky 1792, Tennessee 1796
16 Native Americans and the New Nation Clashes with natives raised question of Indians’ place in the federal structure.Constitution recognized tribes as legal entities, but not outright nationsThe Constitution did not address the main issue of landIndians lived within US boundaries but the US offered them some measure of sovereignty
17 Maintaining Neutrality In 1791 Great Britain sent first minister to USquestion of US neutrality arose in 1793 when French government from revolution of 1789 went to war with Great BritainFrench sent representative to US (Edmond Genet) violated Neutrality Act and tried to recruit Americans to French cause-US ships as privateers, raids against Spanish (who allied with Britain)British Royal Navy began seizing US ships trading w/ French in West Indies in 1794,anti-British feelings high,Hamilton concerned because war meant end to English importsmain revenue for financial system dependent from duties
18 Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty Hamilton feared pro-French State Dept, had Washington send Chief Justice and Federalist John Jay to negotiate treaty with BritainJay’s Treaty in 1794 failed to compensate Brit assaults on ships and withdrawal of Brit forces from frontier, but prevented war, established American sovereignty over Northwest, satisfactory commercial relationshipAmerican backlash followed b/c not enough Brit promises, Republicans and some Federalists offered opposition but ultimately ratified by SenateJay’s treaty allowed peace to be made with Spain b/c raised fears of Brit/American alliance in North America,Pinckney’s treaty in 1795 recognized US right to Mississippi, Florida border, control of Indian raids from FL
20 The Election of 1796 Washington retired from presidency in 1797, in “Farewell” worried over foreign influence on gov’t, including French efforts to frustrate Federalist diplomatic programParty rivalry start sot take shapeJefferson runs for Republicans,Hamilton too many enemies soVP John Adams becomes the Federalist candidateFederalists could win majority of electors 1796 pres. election for Adams but factional fighting within party caused second candidate Thomas Pinckney to receive many votes- resulted in Jefferson finishing second, became VP.Federalists divided, strong Republicans opposition, Hamilton still leads party
21 The Quasi War with France US relations with Great Britain & Spain improved after treaties, deteriorated w/ France b/c of impressments of US ships and sailorsPresident Adams pursued reconciliation by appointing bi-partisan commission of Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry to negotiateFrench foreign minister Talleyrand demanded loan and bribe,Adams turned over report to Congress w/ names deleted- “XYZ Affair” caused outrage at France,Federalist gained support for responseAdams asked Congress to cut off trade, 1798 created Dept of Navy (very successful capturing French ships), cooperated with Great BritainFrance reconciled, new government of Napoleon 1800new commercial arrangements
22 Repression and Protest Conflict with France led to Federalist majority 1798,to silence Republican opposition Adams passed the Alien and Sedition ActsAlien Act restricted foreigners becoming citizens,Sedition Act allowed government to prosecute libelous or treasonous activity- but definitions allowed government to stifle any opposition—Republicans fought backAdams cautious in implementation but still repressive, Republican leaders hoped for reversal from state legislaturesJefferson + Madison had VA, KY adopt resolutions arguing when government exercised undelegated powers, its acts “void”. Used Locke’s “compact theory”: states were part of contract, fed govt had breached contract, therefore states could “nullify” the appropriate laws—only VA and KY did soBy late 1790s national crisis because nation so politically divided
23 The “Revolution” of 18001800 presidential election saw same candidates- Adams’ and Jefferson’s supporters showed no restraint or dignity in their assaults against otherCrucial contest in New York where Aaron Burr (candidate for VP) mobilized Rev War veterans, the Tammany Society, to serve as Republican political machine- Republicans eventually won the state and electionIn partisan atmosphere Jefferson and Burr votes tied, the previous Federalist Congress had to choose between the two in a vote (House of Representatives decides when no majority), ultimately Hamilton and Federalists elected JeffersonAfter election only judiciary branch still Federalist, Judiciary Act of 1801 had created many new positions which Adams had filled before leaving officeRepublican viewed victory as savior from tyranny, believed new era would begin where true founding principles would govern
24 Quizlet Study Session Find a partner Grab one laptop per group Each group will be assigned two terms.Sign in to Quizlet.com and join FLESSA APUSHFor each term:Define itTell us why its importantConnect it to other events in the chapterGive the Social, Economic, and Political influence of the term
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