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The Constitution and the New Republic

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1 The Constitution and the New Republic
Chapter 6 The Constitution and the New Republic

2 Framing a New Government
Chapter 6.1

3 Advocates of Centralization
Americans feared the power of a central/federal/national government Wanted to maintain State’s rights and powers The government under the A of C was hampered by Factions (different groups within the whole) Instability Inability to deal with economic problems (inflation, taxes, etc.) Failure to deal with Shay’s Rebellion made it look bad Lack of power to solve social unrest (like veteran affairs and slavery) Merchants, wealthy landowners, and traders wanted to standardize the economic system… WHY? Alexander Hamilton and James Madison join forces to call for a Constitutional Convention—where delegates will meet to overhaul the A of C and strengthen the central government so that they could have the power to PASS TAXES

4 A Divided Convention 55 “Founding Fathers” met in Philadelphia in September of 1787 Generally they were group of people who distrusted any concentration of power but new they needed a stronger government Washington chosen as President of the Convention Voted to close the meeting to the public and press… Why is this significant? James Madison introduced the Virginia Plan—bicameral legislature (House=based on population, Senate=based on votes of the House) Large states have a huge advantage New Jersey Plan—unicameral legislature equally represented, gave congress powers to tax and regulate trade Gave advantage to small states Argument over whether slaves should be counted for taxation… WHY?

5 Compromise Convention bickered for months, could not decide
Great Compromise —July, 1787 Convention agreed to legislature and representation House=based on population Slaves count as 3/5 of a person but cannot vote Why would slave states want slaves to count as population? Senate=every state gets 2 representatives South prevented North from taxing the slave trade or for stopping the slave trade for 20 years

6 The Constitution of 1787 James Madison—the father of the Constitution
Solved the issues of… Sovereignty—power flowed from the people NOT from the government “We the people…” Divided Power—Federal and State government shared power—a Republic Limiting Power—Separation of powers created a system of checks and balances within the three branches of government and the state/federal government

7 Federalists and Antifederalists
Convention feared that the Constitution wouldn’t be ratified under the A of C (which required a unanimous vote) so they changed the rules and required only 9 states to ratify. All states but Rhode Island ratified it. Federalist Papers—written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay and published in Newspapers, supported the constitution. Supporters came to be known as Federalists Antifederalists—feared a possibly tyrannical centralized government and did not like that the constitution because it lacked a Bill of Rights

8 Completing the Structure
Elections took place in early 1789, overwhelming Federalists won. George Washington became President and John Adams became Vice President Congresses first task was to draft a Bill of Rights— which the antifederalists were promised if they supported the formation of the new government (12 proposed, 10 ratified) Congress created first Cabinet—Secretaries of State (Thomas Jefferson), Treasury (Hamilton), and War (Henry Knox)

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION CONSTITUTION LEVYING TAXES Congress could request states to pay taxes Congress has right to levy taxes on individuals FEDERAL COURTS No system of federal courts Court system created to deal with issues between citizens, states REGULATION OF TRADE No provision to regulate interstate trade Congress has right to regulate trade between states EXECUTIVE  No executive with power. President of U.S. merely presided over Congress Executive branch headed by President who chooses Cabinet and has checks on power of judiciary and legislature AMENDING DOCUMENT 13/13 needed to amend Articles 2/3 of both houses of Congress plus 3/4 of state legislatures or national convention REPRESENTATION OF STATES   Each state received 1 vote regardless of size Upper house (Senate) with 2 votes; lower house (House of Representatives) based on population RAISING AN ARMY Congress could not draft troops, dependent on states to contribute forces Congress can raise an army to deal with military situations INTERSTATE COMMERCE No control of trade between states Interstate commerce controlled by Congress DISPUTES BETWEEN STATES Complicated system of arbitration Federal court system to handle disputes SOVEREIGNTY Sovereignty resides in states Constitution the supreme law of the land PASSING LAWS   9/13 needed to approve legislation

10 Federalists and Republicans
Chapter 6.2

11 Hamilton and the Federalists
Federalists dominated government for 12 years under the leadership of Hamilton (as leader of the party NOT the government) Hamilton believed: Stable and effective government required “enlightened” ruling class What does this mean? Government was responsible for national and state debt—issues bonds to give the wealthy a stake in the country’s future Created a federal bank—safe place to keep funds, collect taxes, and pay government expenses. Government sold lands in the west to pay for bonds but it wasn’t enough Government started taxing the production of Whiskey and putting tariffs on imports.

12 Enacting the Federalist Program
Some states (VA) did not like the Federal assumption of state debts from states with large debt (MA) so they compromised and moved the capitol from Philadelphia to Washington D.C. Bank of United States is created despite argument that Congress could not create the bank since the Constitution did not specifically say it could.

13 The Republican Opposition
Madison warned that political parties were dangerous (Fed Papers #10) Because Federalists were in control of so much of the government, many wanted an opposing party—birth of the Republican Party First Party System—both sides argued that the other side had no right to exist and that there were no political parties. James Madison & Thomas Jefferson—leaders of the Republican party Believed in States Right, Believed in an “Agrarian Republic”—independent farmers Feared growth of cities and industrialization Federalists did not support the French Revolution while the Republican did. (common people of France over threw the French aristocracy)

14 Establishing National Sovereignty
Chapter 6.3

15 Securing the Frontier 1791 PA farmers refused to pay whiskey excise tax, Washington called militia from 3 states, Whiskey Rebellion collapsed- intimidation won allegiance Federal government won loyalty of frontiersmen by accepting territories as new states (NC 1789, RI 1791 last of 13 colonies)- VT 1791, Kentucky 1792, Tennessee 1796

16 Native Americans and the New Nation
Clashes with natives raised question of Indians’ place in the federal structure. Constitution recognized tribes as legal entities, but not outright nations The Constitution did not address the main issue of land Indians lived within US boundaries but the US offered them some measure of sovereignty

17 Maintaining Neutrality
In 1791 Great Britain sent first minister to US question of US neutrality arose in 1793 when French government from revolution of 1789 went to war with Great Britain French sent representative to US (Edmond Genet) violated Neutrality Act and tried to recruit Americans to French cause- US ships as privateers, raids against Spanish (who allied with Britain) British Royal Navy began seizing US ships trading w/ French in West Indies in 1794, anti-British feelings high, Hamilton concerned because war meant end to English imports main revenue for financial system dependent from duties

18 Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty
Hamilton feared pro-French State Dept, had Washington send Chief Justice and Federalist John Jay to negotiate treaty with Britain Jay’s Treaty in 1794 failed to compensate Brit assaults on ships and withdrawal of Brit forces from frontier, but prevented war, established American sovereignty over Northwest, satisfactory commercial relationship American backlash followed b/c not enough Brit promises, Republicans and some Federalists offered opposition but ultimately ratified by Senate Jay’s treaty allowed peace to be made with Spain b/c raised fears of Brit/American alliance in North America, Pinckney’s treaty in 1795 recognized US right to Mississippi, Florida border, control of Indian raids from FL

19 The Downfall of the Federalists
Chapter 6.4

20 The Election of 1796 Washington retired from presidency in 1797,
in “Farewell” worried over foreign influence on gov’t, including French efforts to frustrate Federalist diplomatic program Party rivalry start sot take shape Jefferson runs for Republicans, Hamilton too many enemies so VP John Adams becomes the Federalist candidate Federalists could win majority of electors 1796 pres. election for Adams but factional fighting within party caused second candidate Thomas Pinckney to receive many votes- resulted in Jefferson finishing second, became VP. Federalists divided, strong Republicans opposition, Hamilton still leads party

21 The Quasi War with France
US relations with Great Britain & Spain improved after treaties, deteriorated w/ France b/c of impressments of US ships and sailors President Adams pursued reconciliation by appointing bi-partisan commission of Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry to negotiate French foreign minister Talleyrand demanded loan and bribe, Adams turned over report to Congress w/ names deleted- “XYZ Affair” caused outrage at France, Federalist gained support for response Adams asked Congress to cut off trade, 1798 created Dept of Navy (very successful capturing French ships), cooperated with Great Britain France reconciled, new government of Napoleon 1800 new commercial arrangements

22 Repression and Protest
Conflict with France led to Federalist majority 1798, to silence Republican opposition Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Acts Alien Act restricted foreigners becoming citizens, Sedition Act allowed government to prosecute libelous or treasonous activity- but definitions allowed government to stifle any opposition— Republicans fought back Adams cautious in implementation but still repressive, Republican leaders hoped for reversal from state legislatures Jefferson + Madison had VA, KY adopt resolutions arguing when government exercised undelegated powers, its acts “void”. Used Locke’s “compact theory”: states were part of contract, fed govt had breached contract, therefore states could “nullify” the appropriate laws—only VA and KY did so By late 1790s national crisis because nation so politically divided

23 The “Revolution” of 1800 1800 presidential election saw same candidates- Adams’ and Jefferson’s supporters showed no restraint or dignity in their assaults against other Crucial contest in New York where Aaron Burr (candidate for VP) mobilized Rev War veterans, the Tammany Society, to serve as Republican political machine- Republicans eventually won the state and election In partisan atmosphere Jefferson and Burr votes tied, the previous Federalist Congress had to choose between the two in a vote (House of Representatives decides when no majority), ultimately Hamilton and Federalists elected Jefferson After election only judiciary branch still Federalist, Judiciary Act of 1801 had created many new positions which Adams had filled before leaving office Republican viewed victory as savior from tyranny, believed new era would begin where true founding principles would govern

24 Quizlet Study Session Find a partner Grab one laptop per group
Each group will be assigned two terms. Sign in to and join FLESSA APUSH For each term: Define it Tell us why its important Connect it to other events in the chapter Give the Social, Economic, and Political influence of the term

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